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by the enemy. These lines and the main work were on the right bank of the river, and arranged with good defensive relations, making the place capable of offering a strong resistance against a land-attack coming from the eastward. On the left bank of the river there was a number of hills within cannonrange, that commanded the river-batteries on the right bank. The necessity of occupying these hills was apparent to me at the time I inspected Fort Henry, early in November last; and on the 21st of that month Lieutenant Dixon, the local engineer, was ordered from Fort Donelson to Fort Henry to make the necessary surveys, and construct the additional works .... The surveys were made by the engineer, and plans decided upon without delay; but, by some unforeseen cause, the negroes were not sent until after the 1st of January last. Much valuable time was thus lost, but, under your urgent orders when informed of the delay, General Tilghman and his engineers pressed these defenses for
up camps and fled in disorder to Washington. It was supposed that this cavalry detachment was Jackson's advance guard, and that we were endeavoring to get between them and the capital, as of old. Whatever their ideas, the. retreat was a most hurried and disgraceful affair; whole regiments threw down their arms and rushed towards Alexandria post haste, shouting: Jackson is coming! he is again in our rear!-Old Stonewall, with one hundred thousand men, is marching on Washington! On the twenty-first, Burnside personally demanded a surrender of the town, and threatened to bombard it in case of refusal. The threat was treated with the contempt it deserved, and every non-combatant was ordered from the place. It was now daily expected that the enemy would make some desperate attempt at crossing in face of all opposition; yet day followed day until November had passed, and still no signs of Federal movements. Our position at Fredericksburgh was admirably chosen. We were posted on a
y or the department under a cloud. I, therefore, sat down and wrote the following letter: Murfreesboro, April 27, 1863. Major-General W. S. Rosecrans, Commanding Department of the Cumberland: Sir-Your attack upon me, on the morning of the 21st instant, has been the subject of thought since. I have been absent on duty five days, and, therefore, have not referred to it before. It is the first time since I entered the army, two years ago, as it is the first time in my life, that it has been e, upon that right, which I conceive belongs to the private in the ranks, as well at to every subordinate officer in the army who has been aggrieved, I demand from you an apology for the insulting language addressed to me on the morning of the 21st instant. I am, sir, respectfully, Your obedient servant, John Beatty, Brig.-General I sent this. Would it be regarded as an act of presumption and treated with ridicule and contempt? I feared it might, and sat thinking anxiously over the mat
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., McDowell's advance to Bull Run. (search)
that Johnston brought about 8000 more, the advance arriving on the morning of the 20th and the remainder about noon of the 21st, making his whole force, as he states it, nearly 30,000 men of all arms. The figures are probably under the mark, as Hampennsylvania regiment and the New York battery which insisted (their terms having expired) upon their discharge, and on the 21st, as he expressed it, marched to the rear to the sound of the enemy's cannon. Even Uniform of the 11th New York (fire Zoft. The Sudley church, which was the main hospital after the fight, is a short distance south.-editors. about noon on the 21st. Although the enforced delay at Centreville enabled McDowell to provision his troops and gain information upon which to brious expression, to a sense of responsibility, to a premonition of the fate of his brother who fell upon the field on the 21st, or to other cause, his countenance showed apprehension of evil; but men generally were confident and jovial. McDowell
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., The opposing armies at the first Bull Run. (search)
appears on page 309, vol. II., Official Records, is not a return of McDowell's army at the battle of Bull Run, and was not prepared by me, but, as I understand, has been compiled since the war. It purports to give the strength of the Department of Northeastern Virginia, July 16th and 17th, not of McDowell's army, July 21st. It does not show the losses resulting from the discharge of the 4th Pennsylvania Infantry and Varian's New York battery, which marched to the rear on the morning of the 21st, nor the heavy losses incident to the march of the army from the Potomac; it embraces two regiments — the 21st and 25th New York Infantry--which were not with the army in the field; and it contains the strength of Company E, Second United States Cavalry, as a special item, whereas that company is embraced in the strength of the Second (Hunter's) Division, to which it, with the rest of the cavalry, belonged. In his report of the battle (p. 324, vol. II., Official Records) General McDowell
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., Responsibilities of the first Bull Run. (search)
distances of from 3 to 5 miles. Then, if the enemy had providentially been defeated by one-sixth or one-eighth of their number, Sangster's cross-roads and Fairfax Station would have been out of their line of retreat. Soon after sunrise on the 21st, it was reported that a large body of Federal troops was approaching on the Warrenton Turnpike. This offensive movement of the enemy would have frustrated our plan of the day before, if the orders for it had been delivered to the troops. It appe written about the battle, that important plans of General Beauregard were executed by him. It is a mistake; the first intention, announced to General Beauregard by me when we met, was to attack the enemy at Centreville as early as possible on the 21st. This was anticipated by McDowell's early advance. The second, to attack the Federals in flank near the turnpike with our main force, suggested by General Beauregard, was prevented by the enemy's occupation of the high ground in front of our rig
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., Ellet and his steam-rams at Memphis. (search)
was the hope that our brave commander would ever again tread the decks of his victorious fleet. He continued to send dispatches and issue necessary orders from his bed as long as he could receive the reports of his subordinates. Finally, his rapidly failing strength gave way; the Switzerland, to which he had been removed, and on board which he had been joined by his heart-broken wife and his young daughter, left Memphis on the night of the 18th of June, and as the vessel neared Cairo on the 21st, his gallant spirit passed away. He was accorded a state funeral in Independence Hall. His devoted wife, stricken by grief, survived him but a few days. Both are buried at Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia.-A. W. E. The boats constituting the ram-fleet of the Mississippi River were not built for the purpose they were to serve; they were simply such river steamers as could be purchased under the urgency then pressing. Some were side-wheelers, others stern-wheel tugs, with strong mac
Heros von Borcke, Memoirs of the Confederate War for Independence, Chapter 18: (search)
rily devoured by my poor beasts. The mules withstood the effects of scarce fodder, cold, and wet, better than did the horses. Especially was this exhibited in the case of my grey mule Kitt, for in spite of hard times she looked as gay and sleek as ever; but it must be added that she displayed an omnivorous appetite. All was fodder to her impartial palate, from pine-leaves to scraps of leather, and even the blankets with which I covered my horses were not safe from her voracity. On the 21st we had a visit from Custis Lee, son of our Commander-in-Chief, and aide-de-camp to President Davis, who wished to inspect the battle-field and the town of Fredericksburg; and at his request General Stuart and I gladly accompanied him on the expedition. I had thus the first direct opportunity presented to me of leisurely inspecting the ruins of poor Fredericksburg, which, with its shattered houses, streets ript open, and demolished churches, impressed me sadly enough. The inhabitants had nea
Heros von Borcke, Memoirs of the Confederate War for Independence, Chapter 20: (search)
d from the opposite side of the Rappahannock, we returned to our camping ground, pitched our tents, and established once more, in regular order, our cavalry headquarters. As the continued rains rendered the crossing of the Rappahannock impracticable, an interval of tranquillity succeeded these few days of conflict and excitement. It speeded away, however, rapidly enough, amidst visits in the neighbourhood and pleasant horseback excursions in the company of our lady acquaintances. On the 21st I had an agreeable surprise in a visit from a fellow-countryman, Captain Scheibert, of the Prussian engineers. He had been sent on a mission by his Government to take note as an eyewitness of the operations of the war, and derive what profit he could from its experiences. I had already seen him at General R. E. Lee's headquarters, where he was a guest of the General's, for he had been several weeks with our army, and was now about, at my urgent prayer, to make a further stay with us. My ten
march around us without our knowledge of his movements. We hear now that Colonel Phillips' new command is to be known as the Eighth and Ninth Districts Department of the Missouri. It embraces southwest Missouri, northwestern Arkansas, and the Cherokee Nation. Considering the interests involved and the difficulties of his new position, he is justly entitled to the rank of Brigadier General, particularly if his present assignment is not a temporary arrangement. In the afternoon of the 21st, Captain Hopkin's battery was taken out on the prairies near camp,for the purpose of spending a few hours in artillery practice. This is the battery that I have already referred to as the one we captured from General Cooper's command at Old Fort Wayne, three miles west of our present camp, the 21st of last October. The guns are in excellent condition, and though most of the artillerymen have had only a few months' drill, yet from the target practice this afternoon, they show that they would
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