the command of Sir Hugh Willoughby, following the instructions of Cabot, now almost an octogenarian, dropped down the Thames with the intent to reach China by doubling the northern promontory of Norway.
The admiral, separated from his companions in a storm, was driven by the cold in September to seek shelter in a Lapland harbor.
When search was made for him in the following spring, his whole company had perished from cold; Willoughby himself, whose papers showed that he had survived till January, was found dead in his cabin.
Richard Chancellor, in one of the other ships, reached the harbor of Archangel.
This was the discovery of Russia,
Chap. III.} 1554 and the commencement of maritime commerce with that empire.
A Spanish writer calls the result of the voyage a discovery of new Indies.
Hakluyt, i. 251—284.
Turner's England, III. 298—301.
Purchas, III. 462, 463. The Russian nation, one of the oldest and least mixed in Europe now awakening from a long lethargy, emerged into
Burk, II. 40, 41.
Chalmers, 209, 210, 232.
McMahon, 12. S. F. Streeter's Ms. notes.
When a colonial assembly was next convened, it
1638. Jan. passed an act of attainder against Clayborne; as if he had not only derided the powers of the proprietary, but had scattered jealousies among the Indians, and infuistance of one Ingle, who obtained sufficient notoriety to be proclaimed a traitor to the king,
Chalmers, 217. he was able to promote a
1644. Jan. rebellion.
By the very nature of the proprietary frame of government, the lord paramount could derive physical strength and resources only from his own private fo; and Lord Baltimore and his officers determined, under the powers which the charter conferred, to vindicate his supremacy.
Langford, 9, 10. Towards the end of January, on the ar-
1655 rival of a friendly ship, it was immediately noised abroad, that his patent had been confirmed by the protector; and orders began again to be is