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covered; no ornaments of gold Chap. II.} 1541. adorned the rude savages; their wealth was the harvest of corn, and wigwams were their only palaces they were poor and independent; they were hardy and Mar. loved freedom. When spring Vega says January. L. III. c. XXXVI. opened, Soto, as he Mar. had usually done with other tribes, demanded of the chieftain of the Chickasaws two hundred men to carry the burdens of his company. The Indians hesitated Human nature is the same in every age and t, they could find a dry resting-place. The Indians, whom they had enslaved, died in great numbers; in Minoya, many Christians died; and most of them were attacked by a dangerous epidemic. Nor was the labor yet at an end; it was no easy 1543. Jan. to July. task for men in their condition to build brigantines. Erecting a forge, they struck off the fetters from the slaves; and, gathering every scrap of iron in the camp, they wrought it into nails. Timber was sawed by hand with a large saw,
the command of Sir Hugh Willoughby, following the instructions of Cabot, now almost an octogenarian, dropped down the Thames with the intent to reach China by doubling the northern promontory of Norway. The admiral, separated from his companions in a storm, was driven by the cold in September to seek shelter in a Lapland harbor. When search was made for him in the following spring, his whole company had perished from cold; Willoughby himself, whose papers showed that he had survived till January, was found dead in his cabin. Richard Chancellor, in one of the other ships, reached the harbor of Archangel. This was the discovery of Russia, Chap. III.} 1554 and the commencement of maritime commerce with that empire. A Spanish writer calls the result of the voyage a discovery of new Indies. Hakluyt, i. 251—284. Turner's England, III. 298—301. Purchas, III. 462, 463. The Russian nation, one of the oldest and least mixed in Europe now awakening from a long lethargy, emerged into
y dissolution of the commons; and it was not to lotteries or privileged companies, to parliaments or kings, that the new state was to owe its prosperity. Private industry, directed to the culture of tobacco, enriched Virginia. The condition of private property in lands, among Chap. IV.} 1613-1616 the colonists, depended, in some measure, on the circumstances under which they had emigrated. Some had been sent and maintained at the exclusive cost of the company, and were its servants. One month of their time and three acres of land were set apart for them, besides a small allowance of two bushels of corn from the public store; the rest of their labor belonged to their employers. This number gradually decreased; and, in 1617, there were of them all, men, women, and children, but fifty-four. Others, especially the favorite settlement near the mouth of the Appomattox, were tenants, paying two and a half barrels of corn as a yearly tribute to the store, and giving to the public ser
33, August,ibid.209—222. 1634,ibid.223. 1635,ibid.223. 1636,ibid.229. 1637,ibid.227. 1639,ibid.229—230. 1640,Hening, i.268. 1641, June,ibid.259—262. 1642, January,ibid.267. 1642, April,ibid.230. 1642, June,ibid.269. Considering how imperfect are the early records, it is surprising that so considerable a list can be e, and represent Berkeley as the immediate successor of Harvey. appointed in his stead. Early in the next year, he convened a general assembly. History has 1640. Jan. recorded many instances where a legislature has altered the scale of debts: in modern times, it has frequently been done by debasing the coin, or by introducing pa the colony, assumed the government. His arrival must have been nearly simultaneous with the adjournment of the general assembly, which was held in the preceding January. The acts of that session are most, but are referred to in Hening, i. 267—269, in the acts 49, 50, 51, 52. The statutes, of course, call the year 1641, as th
Bozman, 280—282. Burk, II. 40, 41. Chalmers, 209, 210, 232. McMahon, 12. S. F. Streeter's Ms. notes. When a colonial assembly was next convened, it 1638. Jan. passed an act of attainder against Clayborne; as if he had not only derided the powers of the proprietary, but had scattered jealousies among the Indians, and infuistance of one Ingle, who obtained sufficient notoriety to be proclaimed a traitor to the king, Bacon's Preface. Chalmers, 217. he was able to promote a 1644. Jan. rebellion. By the very nature of the proprietary frame of government, the lord paramount could derive physical strength and resources only from his own private fo; and Lord Baltimore and his officers determined, under the powers which the charter conferred, to vindicate his supremacy. Langford, 9, 10. Towards the end of January, on the ar- 1655 rival of a friendly ship, it was immediately noised abroad, that his patent had been confirmed by the protector; and orders began again to be is
ntending then to begin a plantation in Narragansett Bay. But the affections of the people of Salem revived, and could not be restrained; they thronged to his house to hear him whom they were so soon to lose forever; it began to be rumored, that he could not safely be allowed to found a new state in the vicinity; many of tile people were much taken with the apprehension of his godliness; his opinions were contagious; the infection spread widely. It was therefore resolved to Chap. IX.} 1636 Jan. remove him to England in a ship that was just ready to set sail. A warrant was accordingly sent to him to come to Boston and embark. For the first time, he declined the summons of the court. A pinnace was sent for him; the officers repaired to his house; he was no longer there. Three days before, he had left Salem, in winter snow and inclement weather, of which he remembered the severity even in his late old age. For fourteen weeks, he was sorely tost in a bitter season, not knowing what
ssionately punished; and when they returned to England, Mason and Gorges, the rivals of the Massachusetts company, willingly echoed their vindictive complaints. A petition even reached King Charles, complaining of distraction and disorder in the plantations; but the issue was unexpected. Massachusetts was ably defended by Saltonstall, Humphrey, and Cradock, its friends in England; and the committee of the privy council reported in favor of the adventurers, who were ordered to continue 1633 Jan. their undertakings cheerfully, for the king did not design to impose on the people of Massachusetts the Chap. X.} ceremonies which they had emigrated to avoid. The country, it was believed, would in time be very beneficial to England. Winthrop and Savage, 1. 54—57, and 101—103. Prince, 430,431. Hutch. Coll. 52—54. Hubbard, 150—154. Chalmers, 154,155. Hazard, i. 234, 235. Revenge did not slumber, Winthrop, II. 190,191; or Hazard, i. 242,243. Hubbard, 428—430. because it h