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Anto'nius 19. JULUS ANTONIUS, M. F. M. N., the younger son of the triumvir by Fulvia, was brought up by his step-mother Octavia at Rome, and after his father's death (B. C. 30) received great marks of favour from Augustus, through the influence of Octavia. (Plut. Ant. 87; D. C. 51.15.) Augustus married him to Marcella, the daughter of Octavia by her first husband, C. Marcellus, conferred upon him the praetorship in B. C. 13, and the consulship in B. C. 10. (Vell. 2.100 ; D. C. 54.26, 36; Suet. Cl. 2.) In consequence of his adulterous intercourse with Julia, the daughter of Augustus, he was condemned to death by the emperor in B. C. 2, but seems to have anticipated his execution by a voluntary death. He was also accused of aiming at the empire. (D. C. 55.10; Senec. de Brevit. Vit. 5; Tac. Ann. 4.44, 3.18; Plin. Nat. 7.46; Vell. Pat. l.c.) Antonius was a poet, as we learn from one of Horace's odes (4.2), which is addressed to him.
of the Arsacidae, established on the throne of Armenia by his brother, Mithridates Arsaces [ARSACES VI.] king of the Parthians. --B. C. 127. Arsaces or Arshag I., his son.--B. C. 114. Artaces, Artaxes, or Ardashes I., his son.--B. C. 89. Tigranes or Dikran I. (II.), his son.--B. C. 36. Artavasdes or Artawazt I., his son.--B. C. 30. Artaxes II., his son.--B. C. 20. Tigranes II., brother of Artaxes II.--B. C. .... Tigranes III.--B. C. 6. Artavasdes II.--B. C. 5. Tigranes III. reestablished.--B. C. 2. Erato, queen. A. D. 2. Ariobarzanes, a Parthian prince, established by the Romans.--A. D. 4. Artavasdes III. or Artabases, his Son.--A. D. 5. Erato re-established ; death uncertain.-- .... Interregnum.--A. D. 16. Vonones.--A. D. 17. Interregnum.--A. D. 18. Zeno of Pontus, surnamed Artaxias.--... Tigranes IV., son of Alexander Herodes.--A. D. 35. Arsaces II. --A. D. 35. Mithridates of Iberia.--A. D. 51. Rhadamistus of Iberia.--A. D. 52. Tiridates I.--A. D. 60. Tigranes V. of the race of H
ompelled by her father to marry the aged Agrippa, and her sons, Caius and Lucius Caesar, were raised to the dignity of principes juventutis. At the death of Agrippa, in B. C. 12, Tiberius was obliged to divorce his wife, Vipsania, and, contrary to his own will, to marry Julia. Dissatisfied with her conduct and the elevation of her sons, he went, in B. C. 6, to Rhodes, where he spent eight years, to avoid living with Julia. Augustus, who became at last disgusted with her conduct, sent her in B. C. 2 into exile in the island of Pandataria, near the coast of Campania, whither she was followed by her mother, Scribonia. The children of Julia, Julia the Younger and Agrippa Postumus, were likewise banished. The grief of Augustus was increased by the deaths of his friend Maecenas, in B. C. 8, and of his two grandsons, Caius and Lucius Caesar, who are said to have fallen victims to the ambitious designs of Livia, who wished to make room for her own son, Tiberius, whom the deluded emperor was p
marks of honour. Their requests were seconded by the entreaties of the people, and granted by Augustus, who, under the appearance of a refusal, was exceedingly anxious to grant them the honours they solicited. Thus they were declared consuls elect and principes juventutis before they had laid aside the dress of childhood. Caius was nominated to the consulship in B. C. 5, but was not to enter upon it till five years afterwards. He assumed the toga virilis in the same year, and his brothel in B. C. 2. Caius was sent into Asia in B. C. 1, where he passed his consulship in the following year, A. D. 1. About this time Phraates IV., king of Parthia, seized upon Armenia, and Caius accordingly prepared to make war against him, but the Parthian king gave up Armenia, and settled the terms of peace at an interview with Caius on an island in the Euphrates. (A. D. 2.) After this Caius went to take possession of Armenia, but was treacherously wounded before the town of Artagera in this country.
Chlae'neas (*Xlaine/as), an Aetolian, was sent by his countrymen as ambassador to the Lacedaemonians, B. C. 2] 1, to excite them against Philip V. of Macedon. He is reported by Polybius as dwelling very cogently (dusantip)p(h/tws) on the oppressive encroachments of all the successive kings of Macedonia from Philip II. downwards, as well as on the sure defeat which awaited Philip from the confederacy then formed against him. Chlaeneas was opposed by the Acarnanian envoy Lyciscus, but the Lacedaemonians were induced to join the league of the Romans with the Aetolians and Attalus I. (Plb. 9.28-39, 10.41; Liv. 26.24.) [E.
Flamini'nus 2. L. Quintius Flamininus, was created augur in B. C. 2 12. (Liv. 25.2.)
s of the Thracian tribes into the Roman province. The date of his praetorship is uncertain, but he governed, as his praetorian province, Narbonnese Gaul, between B. C. 76-73, since he remained three years in his government, and in 75 sent provisions, military stores, and recruits to Metellus Pius and Cn. Pompey, who were then occupied with the Sertorian war in Spain. His exactions for this purpose formed one of the charges brought against him by the provincials. He returned to Rome in B. C. 73-2, but he was not prosecuted for extortion and misgovernment until B. C. 69. M. Plaetorius was the conductor, M. Fabius subscriptor of the prosecution. With few exceptions, the principal inhabitants of Narbonne appeared at Rome as witnesses against Fonteius, but the most distinguished among them was Induciomarus, a chief of the Allobroges. The trial was in many respects important; but our knowledge of the cause, as well as of the history of M. Fonteius himself, is limited to the partial and frag
ius to L. Munatius Plancus [PLANCUS], at that time, B. C. 43, proconsul in Transalpine Gaul (ad Fam. 10.1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 11, 12), and he was legatus to Plancus during the first war between Antony and Augustus, and until after the battle of Philippi, B. C. 42. During the war between Antony and the senate, Furnius apprised Cicero of the movements and sentiments of the Roman legions and commanders in Gaul and Spain, but his letters have not been preserved. (Ad Fam. x.) In the Perusine war, B. C. 41-2, Furnius took part with L. Antonius. [ANTONIUS, No. 14.] He defended Sentinum in Umbria against Augustus, and shared the sufferings of the " Perusina Fames." Furnius was one of three officers commissioned by L. Antonius to negotiate the surrender of Perusia, and his reception by Augustus was such as to awaken in the Antonian party suspicions of his fidelity. (Appian, App. BC 5.30, 40, 41; D. C. 48.13, 14.) In B. C. 35 he was prefect of Asia Minor, under M. Antony, where he took prisoner Sex. P
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Gallus, Cani'nius 3. L. Caninius Gallus was consul suffectus in B. C. 2, in the place of M. Plautius Silvanus. (Fasti.) [L.S]
Go'rdius a Cappadocian by birth, the instrument of Mithridates Eupator VI. in his attempts to annex Cappadocia to Pontus. Gordius was employed by him, in B. C. 96, to murder Ariarathes VI. king of Cappadocia [ARIARATHES, No. 6]. He was afterwards tutor of a son of Mithridates. whom, after the murder of Ariarathes VII. he made king of Cappadocia. Gordius was sent as the envoy of Mithridates to Rome, and afterwards employed by him to engage Tigranes, king of Armenia, to attack Cappadocia, and expel Ariobarzanes I., whom the Romans made king of that country in B. C. 93. Sulla restored Ariobarzanes in the following year, and drove Gordius out of Cappadocia. Gordius was opposed to Muraena on the banks of the Halys, B. C. 83-2. (Justin, 38.1-3; App. Mith. 66; Plut. Sull. 5.) [W.B.D]
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