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Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., Cumberland Gap. (search)
y. Ky. Engineers, Capt. William F. Patterson. Confederate forces.--Their composition is not stated in the Official Records. During the month of July Brig.-Gen. Carter L. Stevenson, First Division, Department of East Tennessee, was in position confronting Morgan at Cumberland Gap. The strength of this division was stated by General Kirby Smith on the 24th of the month to be 9000 effectives, well organized and mobilized, and in good condition for active service. The organization on the 3d of July was as follows: Second Brigade, Col. James E. Rains: 4th Tenn., Col. J. A. McMurry; 11th Tenn., Col. J. E. Rains; 42d Ga., Col. R. J. Henderson; 3d Ga. Battalion, Lieut.-Col. M. A. Stovall; 29th N. C., Col. R. B. Vance; Ga. Battery, Capt. J. G. Yeiser. Third Brigade, Brig.-Gen. S. M. Barton; 30th Ala., Col. C. M. Shelley; 31st Ala., Col. D. R. Hundley; 40th Ga., Col. A. Johnson; 52d Ga., Col. W. Boyd; 9th Ga. Battalion, Maj. J. T. Smith; Va. Battery, Capt. Joseph W. Anderson. Fourth Bri
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The Confederate cavalry in the Gettysburg campaign. (search)
the Blue Ridge; Robertson crossed at Williamsport, about twenty-five miles to the west of it, on July 1st, the day the fighting began at Gettysburg. When General Lee crossed the Potomac, he left General Robertson between him and the enemy. By July 3d Robertson had so manoeuvred that Lee was between him and the enemy. Stuart had ridden around General Hooker while Robertson was riding around General Lee. If, in accordance with Stuart's instructions, Robertson had promptly followed on the righe gaps of the mountatins, as Colonel Mosby insinuates, a courier from General Lee met me. My command was hurried from there to Chambersburg, and thence by forced march, on the night of July 2d, to Cashtown, where it arrived at about 10 A. M. on July 3d. Ascertaining at Cashtown that General Pleasonton was moving from Emmitsburg directly on the baggage and ammunition trains of General Lee's army, which were exposed to his attack without defense of any kind, I pressed forward with my command an
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., Hancock and Howard in the first day's fight. (search)
the headquarters of General Meade. The eventful day was over. The First and Eleventh corps, numbering less than eighteen thousand men, nobly aided by Buford's division of cavalry, had engaged and held in check nearly double their numbers from 10 in the morning until 7 in the evening. They gave way, it is true, after hard fighting, yet they secured and held the remarkable position which, under the able generalship of the commander of this army, contributed to the grand results of July 2d and 3d. In a letter to President Lincoln, dated Near Berlin, July 18th, 1863 ( Official Records, Vol. XXVII., p. 700), General Howard says: The successful issue of the battle of Gettysburg was due mainly to the energetic operations of our present commanding general prior to the engagement, and to the manner in which he handled his troops on the field. The reserves have never before during this war been thrown in at just the right moment. In many cases when points were just being carried by
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., chapter 4.42 (search)
arrived at Cemetery Hill at one o'clock in the morning of July 2d, and after daylight established his headquarters in a small farm-house on the Taneytown road, little more than an eighth of a mile east of Hancock's line of battle, which was the Union center. In the afternoon of July 2d, headquarters became the target of a heavy artillery fire which caused a scattering of officers and staffs and the headquarters signal corps. During the terrific cannonade which preceded Pickett's charge on July 3d, Meade's headquarters received a still greater storm of shot and shell, with the same result.--editors. and his troops were under arms for the purpose by the time General Meade had finished the moonlight inspection of his lines, when it was ascertained by a reconnoitering party sent out by Johnson, that the hill was occupied, and its defenders on the alert; and further, from a captured dispatch from General Sykes to General Slocum, that the Fifth Corps was on the Hanover road only four mil
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The breastworks at Culp's Hill. (search)
ore daylight, and after a heavy bombardment, the infantry, by a gallant and successful charge, drove the enemy from the position they had occupied in the night in the lines of the First Division. The attack on my front, on the morning of the 3d of July, was renewed by Johnson's division simultaneously with our attack on the enemy in our lines on our right, and was conducted with the utmost vigor. The greater part of their heavy losses were sustained within a few yards of our breastworks. Hieir arms, ran up close to our works, threw up their handkerchiefs or white rags, and were allowed to come unarmed into our lines. Shaler's and Canda's brigades were sent to our support and took part in the defense of our lines on the morning of July 3d. By 10 A. M. the fighting ceased, and at 1 P. M. the enemy had disappeared from our front, and our men went to Rock Creek for water. Of the disastrous consequences to the Union army, had Lee succeeded in penetrating our lines and placing him
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., chapter 4.47 (search)
le was done, and here a determined effort of the Federal cavalry to reach the right rear of the Confederate army on the 3d of July was frustrated — an attempt which, if successful, must have resulted disastrously to that army. The meagerness of thigadier, I succeeded to the command of Hood's division, and directed its movements during the engagements of the 2d and 3d of July. But owing to the active and constant movements of our army for some weeks after the battle, I was only able to obtain to a direct attack. The whole matter then resolves itself into this: General Lee failed at Gettysburg on the 2d and 3d of July because he made his attack precisely where his enemy wanted him to make it and was most fully prepared to receive it. Eoud that hung so darkly over the field of Gettysburg after the disastrous charge of Pickett. Late in the afternoon of July 3d I was ordered to withdraw the division from the lines it had held since the evening of the 2d to the ridge near the Emmi
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., Kershaw's brigade at Gettysburg. (search)
d ceased any further efforts on our extreme left. In a supplementary report, General Meade amended this paragraph so as to include the First Division of the Twelfth Corps. Lockwood's brigade belonged to the Twelfth Corps, unattached.--editors. These mighty shocks of contending armies were sustained, on our part, by two divisions of infantry numbering, with the artillery, not more than 10,000, or at the highest estimate 13,000 men. Kershaw's brigade remained unemployed during the 3d of July, in the position it held the evening before, along the stony hill and wood. It will be evident to the reader that the causes of the failure of the operations here described to achieve greater results, may be reduced to one, to wit: the want of simultaneous movement and cooperation between the troops employed. A careful examination of all that has been written of that eventful series of battles will show that this was the cause of all the failures. Every attack was magnificent and succes
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., Lee's right wing at Gettysburg. (search)
cond day's fight.--editors. but we had accomplished Brigadier-General William Barksdale, C. S. A., wounded July 2, died July 3. from a photograph. little toward victorious results. Our success of the first day had led us into battle on the 2d, anued, and met such steady response on the part of the Federals, that it seemed less effective than Map 18. positions July 3d, 3:15 to 5:30 P. M. we had anticipated. I sent word to Alexander that unless he could do something more, I wouldnot fee3:15 to 5:30 P. M. we had anticipated. I sent word to Alexander that unless he could do something more, I wouldnot feel warranted in ordering the troops forward. After a little, some of the Federal batteries ceased firing, possibly to save ammunition, and Alexander thought the most suitable time for the advance had come. He sent word to Pickett, and Pickett rode me back I fully expected to see Meade ride to the front and lead Brigadier-General Lewis A. Armistead, C. S. A., killed July 3. from a photograph. his forces to a tremendous counter-charge. Sending my staff-officers to assist in collecting the f
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., chapter 4.53 (search)
ry, excepting the brigades of Jones and Robertson, guarding the communications; and Imboden had also come up. General Lee, therefore, directed the renewal of operations both on the right and left. Ewell had been ordered to attack at daylight on July 3d, and during the night reenforced Johnson with Smith's, Daniel's, and O'Neal's brigades. Johnson had made his preparations, and was about moving, when at dawn Williams's artillery opened upon him, preparatory to an assault by Geary and Ruger fors division, First Corps, on Hays's right in support, and Doubleday's at the Steuart's Brigade renewing the Confederate attack on Culp's Hill, morning of the Third day. The 29th Pennsylvania forming line of battle on Culp's Hill at 10 A. M., July 3. angle between Gibbon and Caldwell. General Newton, having been assigned to the command of the First Corps, vice Reynolds, was now in charge of the ridge held by Caldwell. Compactly arranged on its crest was McGilvery's artillery, forty-one gu
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., General Hancock and the artillery at Gettysburg. (search)
up to the final struggle, prepared in spirit to meet the fearful ordeal of Longstreet's charge. Hancock had full authority over that line of battle; he used that authority according to his own best judgment, and he beat off the enemy. That is the substance of it. Boston, January 12th, 1887. Ii. Rejoinder by Henry J. Hunt, Brevet Major-General, U. S. A. General F. A. Walker, of General Hancock's staff, comments on my expressed belief that, had my instructions for the cannonade of July 3d been carried out by Captain Hazard, commander of the artillery of the Second Corps, the Confederate assault would not have reached our lines, and considers this a very severe impeachment of General Hancock's conduct of his artillery. I fully appreciate and honor the motive of General Walker's courteous criticism, and his very kind references to myself, but he writes under misapprehensions which are widespread and misleading, and which, as they place me in a false position, I beg leave to e
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