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Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The great charge and artillery fighting at Gettysburg. (search)
e. Of Pickett's three brigadiers, Garnett and Armistead were killed and Kemper dangerously wounded. Fry, who commanded Pettigrew's brigade, which adjoined Garnett on the left, and in the charge was the brigade of direction for the whole force, was also left on the field desperately wounded. Of all Pickett's field-officers in the three brigades only one major came out unhurt. The men who made the attack were good enough: the only trouble was, there were not enough of them. Next day, July 4th, we took a pretty fair position, except that it had no right flank, and awaited the enemy, who we thought would be inspired by the day to attack us. Meanwhile the wounded and the trains were started back to the Potomac, and at night, in a pouring rain and over roads that were almost gulfs of mud, the army followed. Providence had evidently not yet taken a proper view of the situation. We had not finished the war, but had to go back to Virginia and start afresh. Yet the morale of the army
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., chapter 4.53 (search)
slodge Meade, intrenched a line from Oak Hill to Peach Orchard, started all his impedimenta to the Potomac in advance, and followed with his army on the night of July 4th, via Fairfield. This compelled Meade to take the circuitous routes through the lower passes; and the strategic advantage to Lee and disadvantage to Meade of Getperly fitted out. They should join you by forced marches. Beware of partial combats. Bring up and hurl upon the enemy all your forces, good and bad. Map 21: July 4th. Map 22: July 5th. Map 23: July 6th. Map 24: July 7th. Map 25: July 8th. Map 26: July 9th. Map 27: July 11th. Map 28: July 13th. Map 29: July 14t time and place, which no commander of the Army of the Potomac has done before. You may well be proud of that battle. The President's order or proclamation of July 4th showed how much he appreciated your success. And now a few words in regard to subsequent events. You should not have been surprised or vexed at the President's
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The Confederate retreat from Gettysburg. (search)
-officer, to-morrow morning, a sealed package for President Davis, which you will retain in your possession till you are across the Potomac, when you will detail a reliable commissioned officer to take it to Richmond with all possible dispatch and deliver it into the President's own hands. And I impress it on you that, whatever happens, this package must not fall into the hands of the enemy. If unfortunately you should be captured, destroy it at the first opportunity. On the morning of July 4th my written instructions, and a large official envelope addressed to President Davis, were handed to me by a staff-officer. It was apparent by 9 o'clock that the wagons, ambulances, and wounded could not be collected and made ready to move till late in the afternoon. General Lee sent to me eight Napoleon guns of the famous Washington Artillery of New Orleans, under the immediate command of Major Eshleman, one of the best artillery officers in the army, a four-gun battery under Captain Ta
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., Relative strength of the armies. (search)
ggling the strength of the commands, but a satisfactory computation of the shrinkage front these causes does not seem possible. It may have ranged from five to ten per cent. The field returns of the infantry and artillery of the army corps, for July 4th, give the following effective figures: First Corps (except one regiment detailed as wagon guard) 5,430 Second Corps 6,923 Third Corps 6,130 Fifth Corps 9,553 Sixth Corps 12,832 Eleventh Corps 5,513 Twelfth Corps (except one Battery on r8 Adding to this the loss of 21,905 sustained by the commands mentioned, gives an approximate calculation of the strength of the seven army corps, viz., 78,043. There are no field returns of the Cavalry Corps or the Artillery Reserve for July 4th. But by assuming, in round numbers, 78,000 as the maximum fighting strength of the seven army corps, and adding 13,000 for the Cavalry Corps, and 2500 for the Artillery Reserve (as shown by the return for June 30th), an aggregate of 93,500 is o
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., chapter 5.63 (search)
south,--and these redoubts were all connected by a line of bastions. In the low ground between these hills and Helena was a strong work,--Fort Curtis,--and in the river lay the gun-boat Tyler, Lieutenant Commanding James M. Prichett, whose great guns were to do no little execution. The Union forces were under the command of General B. M. Prentiss. [See organization, p. 460.] Holmes, nothing daunted, for he was both brave and fearless, ordered the attack to be made at daybreak of the 4th of July. Price with 3095 men was to take Graveyard Hill; Pagan with 1770 men to attack Fort Hindman; and Marmaduke and L. M. Walker were sent with 2781 men against Fort Righter. The attack was made as ordered; Price carried Graveyard Hill in gallant style and held it, but Fagan and Marmaduke were both repulsed, and the fire of the forts, rifle-pits, and gun-boat was then all concentrated against Price. By half-past 10 o'clock in the morning Holmes saw that his attack had failed and withdrew Pr
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The defense of Vicksburg. (search)
live and meet the obloquy which I know will be heaped upon me. But my duty is to sacrifice myself to save the army which has so nobly done its duty to defend Vicksburg. I therefore concur with you and shall offer to surrender this army on the 4th of July. Some objection was made to the day, but General Pemberton said: I am a Northern man; I know my people; I know their peculiar weaknesses and their national vanity; I know we can get better terms from them on the 4th of July than any other day4th of July than any other day of the year. General Pemberton's report repeats this statement; but General Grant has pointed out [see p. 315] that but for the unexpected delays in the negotiations, begun at 10 A. M. on the 3d of July, the surrender would have taken place on that day instead of on the 4th.--editors. We must sacrifice our pride to these considerations. And thus the surrender was brought about. During the negotiations we noticed that General Grant and Admiral Porter were communicating with each other by
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., chapter 5.69 (search)
ficial Records, Vol. XXIV., part I., p. 167) show that the aggregate Union losses, including the above, from May 1st to July 4th, were: killed, 1514; wounded, 7395; captured or missing, 453,--total, 9362.--editors. After the unsuccessful assault. Johnny would call, Well, Yank, when are you coining into town? The reply was sometimes: We propose to celebrate the 4th of July there. Sometimes it would be: We always treat our prisoners with kindness and do not want to hurt them ; or, We are hving out. It was accepted with avidity and with thanks. Pemberton says in his report: If it should be asked why the 4th of July was selected as the day for surrender, the answer is obvious. I believed that upon that day I should obtain better terms. Well aware of the vanity of our foe, I knew they would attach vast importance to the entrance, on the 4th of July, into the stronghold of the great river, and that, to gratify their national vanity, they would yield then what could not be exto
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., Confederate forces: Lieut.-General John C. Pemberton. (search)
division of Loring, from the force under Pemberton. [See p. 487.] On June 4th Johnston's effectives numbered, according to his own report, 24,000. [See also pp. 478, 479, 480.]--editors. Incomplete reports of Confederate losses from May 1st to July 3d, inclusive, aggregate 1260 killed, 3572 wounded, and 4227 captured or missing = 9059. Complete returns would doubtless swellthe numberto over 10,000. According to the parole lists on file in the War Departmnent the number surrendered on July 4th was 29,491. Of course this included all the non-combatants. Pemberton's greatest available force, including the troops confronting Grant at Raymond and Jackson, probably numbered over 40,000. General Grant estimated it at nearly 60,000. General Pemberton says in his official report that when he moved within the defenses of Vicksburg his effective aggregate did not exceed 28,000. Wreck of the star of the West, in the Tallahatchie River, opposite the site of Fort Pemberton. From a photog
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., Naval operations in the Vicksburg campaign. (search)
, and the garrison was driven from their works to the levee. At this critical moment Ramsay, in the Choctaw, turned his guns on the successful assailants, and though Lieutenant-commander James M. Prichett. From a photograph. unable to see the enemy on account of the intervening bank, he hailed the troops on shore to ascertain their position; and so well placed were the hundred or more shell and shrapnel that he fired that the Confederates were soon in full retreat. Finally, on the 4th of July, the day of the fall of Vicksburg, General Holmes made his attack on Helena [see pp. 455-6] with a force of about 8000 men, then garrisoned by 4000 under B. M. Prentiss. The enemy had placed batteries in opposition above and below the town, and, making a spirited attack in front, succeeded in carrying a portion of the outlying works. The garrison fought stubbornly, but were heavily out-numbered. The wooden gun-boat Tyler, under Lieutenant-Commander James M. Prichett, had been covering
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The capture of Port Hudson. (search)
great was the excitement when it was known that the Confederate forces were on the west bank within a few miles of the city; but fortunately the illness that had deprived Emory's division of its commander in the field had given New Orleans Seige of Port Hudson, La. a commander of a courage and firmness that now, as always, rose with the approach of danger, with whom difficulties diminished as they drew near, and whose character had earned the respect of the inhabitants. Still by the 4th of July things were at such a pass that General Emory plainly told General Banks he must choose between Port Hudson and New Orleans. However, Banks was convinced that Port Hudson must be in his hands within three days. His confidence was justified. At last on the 7th of July, when the saphead was within 16 feet of the priest-cap, and a storming party of 1000 volunteers had been organized, led by the intrepid Birge, and all preparations had been made for springing two heavily charged mines, w
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