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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Adams, Charles Francis, 2nd 1835- (search)
which they were playing a part. Yet we were not wholly oblivious of it. Now and then I come across strange evidences of this in turning over the leaves of the few weather-stained, dog-eared volumes which were the companions of my life in camp. The title-page of one bears witness to the fact that it was my companion at Gettysburg, and in it I recently found some lines of Browning's noble poem of Saul marked and altered to express my sense of our situation, and bearing date upon this very 5th of July. The poet had described in them the fall of snow in the spring-time from a mountain, under which nestled a valley; the altering of a few words made them well describe the approach of our army to Gettysburg. Fold on fold, all at once, we crowd thundrously down to your feet, And there fronts you, stark, black but alive yet, your army of old, With its rents, the successive bequeathing of conflicts untold; Yea!--each harm got in fighting your battles. each furrow and scar
s Monroe), Hull received a note from the postmaster at Cleveland announcing the declaration of war. It was the first intimation he had received of that important event. In fact, the British at Fort Malden (now Amherstburg) heard of the declaration before Hull did, and captured his schooner, with all its precious freight. The commander at Malden had been informed of it, by express, as early as June 30—two days before it reached Hull. The latter pressed forward, and encamped near Detroit on July 5. The British were then casting up intrenchments at Sandwich on the opposite side of the Detroit River. There Hull awaited further orders from his government. His troops, impatient to invade Canada, had evinced a mutinous spirit, when he received orders to commence operations immediately, and, if possible, take possession of Fort Malden. At dawn on the morning of July 12, the greater part of his troops had crossed the Detroit River, and were on Canadian soil. Hull issued a proclamation t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fremont, John Charles 1813-1890 (search)
and joined Fremont's camp, and, under his leadership, these settlements were not only saved, but the Mexican authorities were driven out of California. Fremont and his followers met General de Castro and his forces, strong in numbers, when Fremont retired about 30 miles, to a mountain position, where he called around him the American settlers in that region. With these he captured a Mexican post at Sonoma Pass (June 15, 1846), with nine cannon and 250 muskets. De Castro was routed, and on July 5 the Americans in California declared themselves independent, and elected Fremont governor of the province. He then proceeded to join the American naval forces at Monterey, under Commodore Stockton, who had lately arrived, with authority from Washington to conquer California, Fremont appeared there with 160 mounted riflemen. On Aug. 17, 1846, Stockton and Fremont took possession of the city of Los Angeles; and at that place General Kearny, who had just taken possession of New Mexico, joined
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gettysburg, battle of. (search)
upon the Confederate right from near Little Round Top. The Confederates fled; and in this sortie the whole ground lost by Sickles was recovered, with 260 men captives, 7,000 small-arms, a cannon, and wounded Unionists, who had lain nearly twenty-four hours uncared for. Thus, at near sunset, July 3, 1863, ended the battle of Gettysburg. During that night and all the next day Lee's army on Seminary Ridge prepared for flight back to Virginia. His invasion was a failure; and on Sunday morning, July 5, his whole army was moving towards the Potomac. This battle, in its far-reaching effects, was the most important of the war. The National loss in men, from the morning of the 1st until the evening of the 3d of July, was reported by Meade to be 23,186, of whom 2,834 were killed, 13,709 wounded, and 6,643 missing. Lee's loss was probably about 30,000. The battle-ground is now the National Soldiers' Cemetery, nearly all of the Confederate dead having been removed to Southern cemeteries. T
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Mexico, War with (search)
y an express from Commodore Robert F. Stockton (q. v.), and Lieut.-Col. John C. Fremont (q. v.), informing him that the conquest of California had been achieved. Fremont and a party of explorers, sixty in number, joined by American settlers in the vicinity of San Francisco, had captured a Mexican force at Sonoma pass, June 15, 1846, with the garrison, nine cannon, and 250 muskets. He then defeated another force at Sonoma, and drove the Mexican authorities out of that region of country. On July 5 the Americans in California declared themselves independent, and put Fremont at the head of affairs. On the 7th Commodore Sloat, with a squadron, bombarded and captured Monterey, on the coast; on the 9th Commodore Montgomery took possession of San Francisco. Commodore Stockton and Colonel Fremont took possession of Los Angeles on Aug. 17, and there they were joined by Kearny, who had sent the main body of his troops back to Santa Fe. Fremont went to Monterey, and there assumed the office of
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Niagara, Fort (search)
captured. General Scott finally led the army to the Niagara and made his headquarters at Buffalo, where General Brown appeared at the close of June. On the morning of July 3, Generals Scott and Ripley crossed the Niagara River with a considerable force and captured Fort Erie, nearly opposite Black Rock. The garrison withdrew to the intrenched camp of General Riall at Chippewa, a few miles below. The Americans pressed forward, and in the open fields near Chippewa they fought Riall's army (July 5), and drove the British in haste to Burlington Heights (see Chippewa, battle of). Lieutenant-General Drummond then gathered all available troops and advanced to the Niagara River. He met the Americans near the great cataract of the Niagara, and there, on the evening of July 25, one of the most sanguinary battles of the war was fought, beginning at sunset and ending at midnight (Lundy's Lane, Battle of.). The Americans were left in quiet possession of the field. Brown and Scott were both
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Revolutionary War, (search)
ecalled Feb., 1779 Battle of Kettle Creek, Ga., American victory Feb. 14, 1779 Americans under Major Clarke capture Vincennes Feb. 20, 1779 Battle of Brier Creek, Ga., British victory March 3, 1779 Salt works at Horseneck, Conn., destroyed by General TryonMarch 26, 1779 American ministers recalled, except at Versailles and Madrid April, 1779 Americans repulsed at Stono Ferry, S. C.June 20, 1779 Spain declares war against Great Britain June, 1779 British under Tryon plunder New Haven, July 5, and burn Fairfield, July 8, and Norwalk July 12, 1779 Americans under Wayne take by storm Fort Stony Point, N. Y. July 16, 1779 Expedition against the British at Fort Casting, Me., repulsed July 25, 1779 American fleet arrive at Penobscot, July 25, and are dispersed by British fleet Aug. 13, 1779 Congress agrees to a basis of terms for a peace with Great BritainAug. 14, 1779 General Sullivan's campaign against the Six Nations; the Indian villages of the Genesee Valley destroyedJuly-Sep
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), St. Clair, Arthur 1734-1818 (search)
in the fall of that year accompanied Pennsylvania commissioners to treat with the Western Indians at Fort Pitt. As colonel of the 2d Pennsylvania Regiment, he was ordered to Canada in February, 1776, and in the early summer aided Sullivan in saving his army from capture. In August he was made a brigadier-general, and joined Washington in November. St. Clair was actively engaged in New Jersey until April, 1777, when he took command of Ticonderoga, which he was compelled to evacuate (July 4-5), by the presence of Burgoyne in overwhelming force. After that he was a member of Washington's military family, acting as his aide at the battle near the Brandywine. He was with Sullivan in the Seneca country in 1779. St. Clair commanded the light infantry in the absence of Lafayette, and was a member of the court that condemned Major Andre. He was in command at West Point from Oct. 1, 1780, and aided in suppressing the mutiny of the Pennsylvania line in January, 1781. Joining Washington
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), State government. (search)
perties against the hostile invasions and cruel depredations of their enemies. This was the first act of Congress in favor of absolute independence of Great Britain. The recommendation was generally followed, but not without opposition. New Hampshire had prepared a temporary State government in January, 1776. The royal charters of Rhode Island and Connecticut were considered sufficient for independent local self-government. New Jersey adopted a State constitution July 2, 1776; Virginia, July 5; Pennsylvania, July 15; Maryland, Aug. 14; Delaware, Sept. 20; North Carolina, Dec. 18: Georgia, Feb. 5, 1777; New York, April 20; South Carolina, March 19, 1778; and Massachusetts, March 2, 1780. For all practical purposes—even to the extent of alterations of the constitutions, except in a few States where different provisions were made—the supreme power was vested in the respective legislatures, which, excepting Pennsylvania and Georgia, consisted of two branches. The more numerous bra
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Ticonderoga, operations at (search)
nt George Augustus Howe, colonel of the 60th (Royal American) Regiment, and then a brigadier-general, was Abercrombie's second in command. Howe was then thirty-four years of age, a skilful soldier, and greatly beloved by his men. The army moved (July 5) down the lake in 900 bateaux and 125 whale-boats, and spent the night at a place yet known (as then named) as Sabbath-day Point. At dawn they landed at the foot of the lake, about 4 miles from Ticonderoga. The whole country was covered with a important points near it, and finally planted a battery on a hill 700 feet above the fort, since known as Mount Defiance. The battery there made Ticonderoga absolutely untenable, and a council of war determined to evacuate it. On the evening of July 5, invalids, stores, and baggage were sent off in boats to Skenesboro (afterwards Whitehall); and at 2 A. M. on the 6th the troops left the fort silently, and withdrew to Mount Independence across a bridge of boats. Thence they began a flight sout
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