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uld not be subjugated. He had heard of the death-bed remark of Hume, that the success of the court would bring to England the loss of her liberties. Maltzan to Frederic, 6 Sept., 1776. If, under such circumstances, he continued, the nation should suffer the faction of Bute and the tories to infringe with impunity the form of their government, they certainly merit no longer the name of free Britons. Frederic to Maltzan, 10 Oct., 1776. With a commercial agent, sent in the following November by Silas Deane, he declined to treat; for he saw endless difficulties in the way of establishing a direct commerce between the United States and Prussia: but he consented to an exchange of commodities through the ports of Brittany. Schulenburg to Frederic, 30 Nov., 1776. Frederic to Schulenburg, 2 Dec., 1776. Frederic to Goltz, 2 Dec., 1776. That France and Spain would be drawn into the war, he from the first foretold, yet not without misgivings as to the effect on themselves. F
western domain: but, after unassisted efforts for a more efficient union, the state, on the twentyfifth of the following November, accepted the confederacy without amendment; and on the fifth of May, 1779, the delegates of Delaware did the same. Marurprised light infantry under Pulaski's command; and, cumbering themselves with no prisoners, killed all they could. In November a large party of Indians with bands of Nov. tories and regulars entered Cherry valley by an unguarded pass, and, findinNov. tories and regulars entered Cherry valley by an unguarded pass, and, finding the fort too strong to be taken, murdered and scalped more than thirty of the Chap. V.} 1778. Nov. inhabitants, most of them women and children. The story of these massacres was repeated from village to village, and strengthened the purpose of rNov. inhabitants, most of them women and children. The story of these massacres was repeated from village to village, and strengthened the purpose of resistance. With the year 1778, South Carolina, which for two years had been unvisited by an enemy, after long deliberation established a permanent form of government. Immediately after the general declaration of independence, its citizens, by com
at the annual interest payable at Paris on a loan certificate became equal to about thirty-six per cent. The anxious deliberations of the committee of congress during more than two months at Yorktown produced only a recommendation, adopted in November, Nov. 22. that the several states should become creditors of the United States by raising for the continental treasury five millions of dollars, in four quarterly instalments; the first payment to be made on the coming New-Year's day, and the ws for aid; and in December Laurens retired from Dec. the office of president of congress, in the expectation of being appointed to negotiate a loan in the Netherlands. Till money could be borrowed, paper was the only resource; and the wants of November and December required an emission of rather more than twenty millions. The debt of the United States, in currency and in certificates, was estimated at one hundred and forty millions. The continental bills already exceeded one hundred and six
in this new people a race of conquerors; and he undervalued American patriotism and firmness. Vergennes to Montmorin, 2 Nov., 1778. To quiet the Spanish court, Nov. he further wrote in November: Examine with reflection, collectively and in detail, the constitutions which the United States have given themselves. Their republicNovember: Examine with reflection, collectively and in detail, the constitutions which the United States have given themselves. Their republic, unless they amend its defects, which from the diversity and even antagonism of their interests appears to me very difficult, will never be anything more than a feeble body, capable of little Chap. VIII.} 1778. activity. Vergennes to Montmorin, 27 Nov., 1778. But the fears of Florida Blanca could not be allayed. He hopetake part in the war. But his demands in comparison with the moderation of France were so extravagant, that he was ashamed himself to give them utterance; and in November he requested Vergennes Nov. 20. to suggest to him the advantages which France would bind itself to secure to Spain before listening to propositions for peace.
belief that he had brought the empress to the verge of standing forth as the professed friend of Great Britain, Harris thought he had only to meet her objection of his having acted without instructions; and, at his instance, George the Third, in November, by an autograph letter, entreated her armed mediation against the house of Nov. Bourbon. I admire, so he addressed her, the grandeur of your talents, the nobleness of your sentiments, and the extent of your intelligence. The employ, the mereNov. Bourbon. I admire, so he addressed her, the grandeur of your talents, the nobleness of your sentiments, and the extent of your intelligence. The employ, the mere show of naval force could break up the league formed against me, and maintain the balance of power which this league seeks to destroy. Malmesbury, i. 228. The letter was accompanied by a writing from Harris, in which he was lavish of flattery; and he offered, unconditionally, an alliance with Great Britain, including even a guarantee against the Ottoman Porte. Goertz to Frederic, 14 Dec., 1779. The answer was prepared by Panin without delay. The empress loves peace, and therefore re
as recalled in haste to repel new dangers impending from another quarter. Sumpter had rallied the patriots in the country above Camden, and in frequent skirmishes kept the field. Mounting his partisans, he intercepted British supplies of all sorts, and sent parties within fourteen miles of Winnsborough. Having ascertained the number and position of his troops, Cornwallis despatched a party under Major Wemyss against him. After a march of twenty-four miles with mounted Chap. XVI.} 1780. Nov. infantry, Wemyss reached Fishdam on Broad river, the camp of General Sumpter, and at the head of his corps charged the picket. The attack was repelled; he himself was wounded and taken prisoner. A memorandum was found upon him of houses burned by his command. He had hanged Adam Cusack, a Carolinian, who had neither given his parole nor accepted protection nor served in the patriot army; yet his captors would not harm a man who was their prisoner. The position of the British in the upper
ptember, the committee assembled at the new court-house in Boston. Among them were Bowdoin, who was president of the convention; Samuel Adams; John Lowell; Jonathan Jackson of Newburyport, who thought that the liberty which America achieved for itself should prevail without limitation as to color; Parsons, a young lawyer of the greatest promise, from Newburyport; Chap. XVII.} 1779. and Strong of Northampton. John Adams had arrived opportunely from France, to which he did not return till November; and was so far the principal agent in writing out the first draft of the constitution, that it was reputed to be his work. There are no means of distributing its parts to their several authors with certainty. No one was more determined for two branches of the legislature with a veto in the governor than John Adams. To him also more than to any other may be ascribed the complete separation of both branches from appointments to office. The provisions for the total abolition of slavery ma
mit was reached before the end of the year. In October, it appointed Henry Laurens of South Carolina to negotiate a loan of ten millions in the Netherlands. In November, it further resolved Nov. to draw upon him for one hundred thousand pounds sterling; and to draw on Jay at Madrid, for as much more. The two were instructed muNov. to draw upon him for one hundred thousand pounds sterling; and to draw on Jay at Madrid, for as much more. The two were instructed mutually to support each other; but neither of them had any resources. The king of Spain was the most determined foe to the independence of the United States; and the United Provinces had not yet acknowledged their existence. In the midst of these financial straits, the year came to an end; and a paper dollar, which in January hadon by inviting Duane, a member of congress from New York, to hold up to that body the example of the New England states, and to call on the first day of the next November a convention of all the states, with full authority to conclude finally upon a general confederation. He traced the causes of the want of power in congress, and
Yorke announced that the states-general, at their meeting in the first week of November, would disavow the transaction between Am- Nov. sterdam and America, but woulNov. sterdam and America, but would decide to join the northern league. I am afraid, he said, we must proceed alone, and advise an immediate declaration. Yorke to Stormont, 31 Oct., 1780. On t., 1780. The memorial to the states-general was drafted by Chap. XX.} 1780. Nov. Lord Stormont himself, and was designed to conceal the real motives of Great Bri asked Yorke. The prince answered: I hope they will communi- Chap. XX.} 1780. Nov. cate their disavowal to England. But he did not deny that the plurality of the his dignity. Three days after the delivery of the memorial, Chap. XX.} 1780. Nov. Yorke caused it to be printed. It seemed to the patriots singular for the Englihe people, every branch of the government, all the ministers, Chap. XX.} 1780. Nov. desired to continue at peace. Even the stadholder, the great partisan of Englan
himself so far as to insinuate his wish in a letter to one Forth, a former secretary of the British embassy at Paris. Nothing came of the overture. Peace will be a great good, wrote Chap. XXI.} 1780. Marie Antoinette; but, if our enemies do not demand it, I shall be very much afflicted by a humiliating one. Marie Antoinette to Maria Theresa, 13 July and 11 Oct., 1780. After the capture of Charleston, and the rout of the army under Gates, the British parliament, which came together in November, granted all the demands of the ministry for money and for men by vast majorities; and the dread of disorder in the cities of England gave new strength to the government. At such a moment, Necker, who was ready Dec. 1. to take everything upon himself, wrote secretly to Lord North, proposing peace on the basis of a truce, during which each party should keep possession of all that it had acquired. The terms thus clandestinely offered were such as Vergennes always rejected, as inconsistent
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