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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 19 19 Browse Search
Appian, The Civil Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 1 1 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 122 BC or search for 122 BC in all documents.

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Ahenobarbus 3. CN. DOMITIUS CN. F. CN. N. AHENOBARBUS, son of the preceding, was sent in his consulship B. C. 122, against the Allobroges in Gaul, because they had received Teutomalius, the king of the Salluvii and the enemy of the Romans, and had laid waste the territory of the Aedui, the friend of the Romans. In 121 he conquered the Allobroges and their ally Vituitus, king of the Arverni, near Vindalium, at the confluence of the Sulga and the Rhodanus; and he gained the battle mainly through the terror caused by his elephants. He commemorated his victory by the erection of trophies, and went in procession through the province carried by an elephant. He triumphed in 120. (Liv. Epit. 61; Florus, 3.2; Strab. iv. p.191 ; Cic. Font. 12, Brut. 26; Vell. 2.10, 39 ; Oros. 5.13; Suet. Nero 2, who confounds him with his son.) He was censor in 115 with Caecilius Metellus, and expelled twenty-two persons from the senate. (Liv. Epit. 62; Cic. Clu. 42.) He was also Pontifex. (Suet. l.c.) The Via
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
e whole of Syria. In the earlier part of the year 125 he defeated Demetrius, who fled to Tyre and was there killed; but in the middle of the same year Alexander's patron, the king of Egypt, set up against him Antiochus Grypus, a son of Demetrius, by whom he was defeated in battle. Alexander fled to Antioch, where he attempted to plunder the temple of Jupiter in order to pay his troops; but the people rose against him and drove him out of the city. He soon fell into the hands of robbers, who delivered him up to Antiochus, by whom he was put to death,B. C. 122. He was weak and effeminate, but sometimes generous. His surname, Zebina, which means " a purchased slave," was applied to him as a term of reproach, from a report that he had been bought by Ptolemy as a slave. Several of his coins are extant. In the one figured below Jupiter is represented on the reverse, holding in the right hand a small image of victory. (Just. 39.1, 2; J. AJ 13.9, 10; Clinton, Fasti, iii. p. 334.) [P.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
In B. C. 106 he spoke in favour of the lex Servilia, by which it was proposed to restore to the equites the judicia, which were then in the hands of the senatorian order. The contests for the power of being selected as judices, which divided the different orders, prove how much the administration of justice was perverted by partiality and faction. As there is much confusion in the history of the judicia, it may be proper to mention some of the changes which took place about this period. In B. C. 122, by the lex Sempronia of C. Gracchus, the judicia were transferred from the senate to the equites. In B. C. 106, by the lex Servilia of Q. Servilius Caepio, they were restored to the senate; and it is not correct to say (with Walter, Gesch. des Romischen Rechts, i. p. 244, and others), that by this lex Servilia both orders were admitted to share the judicia. The lex Servilia of Caepio had a very brief existence ; for about B. C. 104, by the lex Servilia of C. Servilius Glaucia, the judicia
d the gold from being paid, or obliged it to be restored in the first instance. Of the time when the first Livius Drusus flourished, nothing more precise is recorded than that M. Livius Drusus, who was tribune of the plebs with C. Gracchus in B. C. 122, was his abnepos. This word, which literally means grandson's grandson, may possibly mean indefinitely a more distant descendant, as atavus in Horace (Hor. Carm. 1.1) is used indefinitely for an ancestor. Pighius (Annales, i. p. 416) conjectuhave been annihilated as an independent people, and we never afterwards read of them as being engaged in war against Rome. On this supposition, however, according to the ordinary duration of human life, M. Livius Drusus, the patronus senatus of B. C. 122, must have been, not the abnepos, but the ad nepos, or grandson's grandson's son, of the first Drusus, and hence Pighius (l.c.) proposes to read in Suetonius ad nepos in place of abnepos. Suetonius (Suet. Tib. 2) mentions a Claudius Drusus, w
Drusus 4. M. LIVIUS C. F. M. AEMILIANI N. DRUSUS, son of No. 3, was tribune of the plebs in the year B. C. 122, when C. Gracchus was tribune for the second time. The senate, alarmed at the progress of Gracchus in the favour of the people, employed his colleague Drusus, who was noble, well educated, wealthy, eloquent, and popular, to oppose his measures and undermine his influence. Against some of the laws proposed by Gracchus, Drusus interposed his veto without assigning any reason. (Appian, App. BC 1.23.) He then adopted the unfair and crooked policy of proposing measures like those which he had thwarted. He steered by the side of Gracchus, merely in order to take the wind out of his sails. Drusus gave to the senate the credit of every popular law which he proposed, and gradually impressed the populace with the belief that the optimates were their best friends. The success of this system earned for him the designation patronus senatus. (Suet. Tib. 3.) Drusus was able to do with appl
, who was now, for once, upon the side of the senate. (Liv. Epit. xix.) In the dispute between the senate and the equites for the possession of the judicia, Caepio took the part of the equites, while Drusus advocated the cause of the senate with such earnestness and impetuosity, that, like his father, he seems to have been termed patronus senatus. (Cic. pro Mil. 7; Diod. xxxvi. fr. fin. ed. Bipont. x. p. 480.) The equites had now, by a lex Sempronia of C. Gracchus, enjoyed the judicia from B. C. 122, with the exception of the short interval during which the lex Servilia removed the exclusion of the senate [see p. 880a]. It must be remembered that the Q. Servilius Caepio who proposed this shortlived law (repealed by another lex Servilia of Servilius Glaucia) was perhaps the father of Q. Servilius Caepio, the brother-in-law of Drusus, but was certainly a different person and of different politics. [See p. 535a.] The equites abused their power, as the senate had done before them. As farm
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
C. Gracchus did, especially of his agrarian law; but he seems to have been wanting in that dignified and quiet, but steady conduct, which characterises the pure and virtuous career of C. Gracchus, who was more injured in public opinion than benefited by his friendship with M. Fulvius Flaccus; for among other charges which were brought against him, it was said that he endeavoured to excite the Italian allies, by bringing forward in his consulship a bill to grant them the Roman franchise. In B. C. 122, he accompanied C. Gracchus into Africa to establish a colony at Carthage, for the senate was anxious to get rid of them, and in their absence to make energetic preparations against them. But both returned to Rome very soon. During the night previous to the murder of C. Gracchus, Flaccus kept a mob ready to fight against the senatorial party, and spent the night in drinking and feasting with his friends. At day-break he went with his armed band to seize the Aventine hill. C. Gracchus also
d C. Fannius into the assembly, and canvassed with his friends for him. Fannius was accordingly elected consul in preference to Opimius, who had likewise offered himself as a candidate. C. Gracchus himself was elected tribune for the next year (B. C. 122) also, although he had not asked for it. M. Fulvius Flaccus, a friend of Caius, who had been consul in B. C. 125, had caused himself to be elected tribune, for the purpose of being able to give his support to one important measure which Caius hn any just ground for attacking him, which was, in fact, the very thing they were looking for. But the people, who were unable to appreciate such motives, looked upon his forbearance as an act of cowardice. The year of his second tribuneship, B. C. 122, thus came to its close. After Opimius had entered on his consulship, the senate, which had hitherto acted rather on the defensive, and opposed Gracchus with intrigues, contrived to lead Caius into wrong steps, that he might thus prepare his ow
Hi'ppius a friend of Cicero's, whom the orator represents as particularly deserving of his esteem. He therefore recommended the son of Hippius, C. Valgius Hippianus, who had been adopted by a member of the Valgian family, and had purchased a portion of the demesne of Fregellae, to the magistrates of that town. (Cic. Fam. 13.76.) This letter conveys indirectly some curious information. Fregellae, once the chief town of a considerable district, became a Roman colony in B. C. 328. (Liv. 8.22; Strab. v. p.238.) In B. C. 122-121 it was destroyed by the praetor, L. Opimius (Rhet. ad Herenn. iv. 9; Vell. 2.6; V. Max. 2.8); and in the age of Augustus it was little more than an open village (Strab. l.c.; Plin. Nat. 3.5). But Cicero's letter (l.c.) shows that it retained its demesne-land and its full complement of local magistrates. [W.B.D]
onsuls of B. C. 132 in examining C. Blossius of Cumae and the other partizans of Tib. Gracchus (Cic. de Amic. 11 ; comp. Plut. TG 20), and in B. C. 130, he spoke against the Papirian Rogation, which would have enabled the tribunes of the plebs to be re-elected from year to year (Cic. de Amic. 25; Liv. Epit. 59). But although Laelius was the strenuous opponent of the popular leaders of his age--the tribunes C. Licinius Crassus, B. C. 145, C. Papirius Carbo, B. C. 131, and C. Gracchus B. C. 123-122 --nature had denied him the qualities of a great orator. His speeches read better than those of his contemporary and rival C. Servius Galba, yet Galba was doubtless the more eloquent. (Cic. Brut. 24.) Laelius in his own age was the model, and in history is the representative of the Greek culture which sprang up rapidly at Rome in the seventh century of the city. Serene and philosophical by temperament (Cic. de Off. 1.26; Sen. Ep. 11), erudite and refined by education, Laelius was among the ea
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