r carbonizing turf.
A broad nigging-chisel, used in charring or hewing stone.
1. A representation of a portion of the earth's surface projected on a plane.
The term is commonly restricted to those intended for navigators' use, on which merely the outlines of coasts, islands, etc., are represented.
2. A sheet exhibiting a statement of facts in tabular form, so arranged that any particular may be readily referred to.
Hipparchus, of Alexandria (160-125 B. C.), reduced geography to a science, determining the latitude and longitude of places by celestial observations.
The geography of Ptolemy was translated into Arabic by the command of the Khalif Al Maimoun, between 813 and 833 A. D.
Charts were introduced into the marine service by Henry, son of John I. of Portugal, about A. D. 1400; brought to England by Bartholomew Colon in 1489.
Mercator's chart is a projection of the surface of the earth in the plane, with the meridians parallel t