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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 17 17 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Strabo, Geography, Book 14, chapter 1 (search)
omise of freedom, whom he called Heliopolitae.Citizens of the city of Helius (Sun-god). Now he first fell upon Thyateira unexpectedly, and then got possession of Apollonis, and then set his efforts against other fortresses. But he did not last long; the cities immediately sent a large number of troops against him, and they were assisted by Nicomedes the Bithynian and by the kings of the Cappadocians. Then came five Roman ambassadors, and after that an army under Publius Crassus the consul,131 B.C. and after that Marcus Perpernas, who brought the war to an end, having captured Aristonicus alive and sent him to Rome. Now Aristonicus ended his life in prison; Perpernas died of disease; and Crassus, attacked by certain people in the neighborhood of Leucae, fell in battle. And Manius Aquillius came over as consul129 B.C. with ten lieutenants and organized the province into the form of government that still now endures. After Leucae one comes to Phocaea, on a gulf, concerning which
d the town of TemnosIts site is now called Menemen, according to D'Anville. The Cryus was so called from the Greek kru/os, "cold.": we now see at the extremity of the gulfThe present Gulf of Smyrna. the rocks called MyrmecesOr the "Ants.", the town of LeuceProbably so called from the whiteness of the promontory on which it was situate. It was built by Tachos, the Persian general, in B.C. 352, and remarkable as the scene of the battle between the Consul Licinius Crassus and Aristonicus in B.C. 131. The modern name of its site is Lefke. on a promontory which was once an island, and Phoc├ŽaIts ruins are to be seen at Karaja-Fokia or Old Fokia, south-west of Fouges or New Fokia. It was said to have been founded by Phocian colonists under Philogenes and Damon., the frontier town of Ionia. A great part also of ├ćolia, of which we shall have presently to speak, has recourse to the jurisdiction of Smyrna; as well as the Macedones, surnamed HyrcaniThe people of Hyrcania, one of the twelve cities
Aristoni'cus 2. A natural son of Eumenes II. of Pergamus, who was succeeded by Attalus III. When the latter died in B. C. 133, and made over his kingdom to the Romans, Aristonicus claimed his father's kingdom as his lawful inheritance. The towns, for fear of the Romans, refused to recognise him, but he compelled them by force of arms; and at last there seemed no doubt of his ultimate success. In B. C. 131, the consul P. Licinius Crassus, who received Asia as his province, marched against him; but he was more intent upon making booty than on combating his enemy, and in an ill-organized battle which was fought about the end of the year, his army was defeated, and he himself made prisoner by Aristonicus. In the year following, B. C. 130, the consul M. Perperna, who succeeded Crassus, acted with more energy, and in the very first engagement conquered Aristonicus and took him prisoner. After the death of Perperna, M. Aquillius completed the conquest of the kingdom of Pergamus, B. C. 129.
C. 164, a son of No. 1, and a contemporary and friend of the Graechi; but though he apparently followed in the footsteps of Tib. Gracchus, yet his motives widely differed from those of his noble friend, and towards the end of his life he showed how little he had acted upon conviction or principle, by deserting his former friends and joining the ranks of their enemies. After the death of Tiberius Gracchus he was appointed his successor as triumvir agrorum diridendorum, and shortly after, in B. C. 131, he was elected tribune of the people. During the year of his tribuneship he brought forward two new laws: 1. That a person should be allowed to be re-elected to the tribuneship as often as might be thought advisable: this law, which was strenuously opposed by P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus the younger, was supported by C. Graechus; and 2. A lex tabellaria, which ordained that the people should in future vote by ballot in the enactment and repeal of laws. In his tribuneship he continued to
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Crassus, Clau'dius 8. P. LICINIUS CRASSUS DIVES MUCIANUS, was the adopted son of No. 7. (Cic. Brut. 26.) His natural father was P. Mucius Scaevola, who was consul B. C. 175. In the year B. C. 131 he was consul and pontifex maximus, and, according to Livy, was the first priest of that rank who went beyond Italy. (Epit. lix.) As pontifex maximus, he forbade his colleague, Valerius Flaccus, who was flamen Martialis, to undertake the command against Aristonicus, and imposed a fine upon him, in case of his leaving the sacred rites. The people remitted the fine, but shewed their sense of due priestly subordination by ordering the flamen to obey the pontiff. (Cic. Phil. 11.8.) Crassus, though his own absence was liable to similar objection, proceeded to oppose Aristonicus, who had occupied the kingdom of Pergamus, which had been bequeathed by Attalus to the Roman people. His expedition to Asia was unfortunate. He suffered a defeat at Leucae, and was overtaken in his flight between Elaea an
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Flaccus, Vale'rius 10. L. Valerius Flaccus, was flamen Martialis, and received the consulship in B. C. 131, with P. Licinius Crassus, then pontifex maximus. Flaccus wished to undertake the command in the war against Aristonicus in Asia, but his colleague fined him for deserting the sacra entrusted to his care. The people, before whom the question was brought for decision, cancelled the fine, but compelled the flamen Flaccus to obey the pontiff Crassus. (Cic. Phil. 11.8.) He may possibly be the same as the one whose quaestor, M. Aemilius Scaurus, wanted to bring an accusation against him (Cic. Divin. in Caec. 19), though it is uncertain whether Scaurus was quaestor in the praetorship or consulship of Flaccus.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
s Flaccus, the accuser of Carbo. (Cic. Fam. 9.21.) [L.S] There are several coins of the Valeria gens belonging to the family of the Flacci. Of these, three specimens are given below. The first has on the obverse the head of Pallas, and on the reverse Victory in a biga, with C. VA. C. F. FLAC. The second has on the obverse the head of Victory, and on the reverse the military standard of an eagle, between two other military standards, with C. VAL. FLA. IMPERAT. EX. S. C. This C. Valerius Flaccus may be the same as No. 14, whom Cicero calls Imperator. The third coin has on the obverse the head of Victory, and on the reverse Mars standing between an apex (Dict. of Ant. s.v.) and an ear of corn, with L. VALERI FLACCI. The apex shows that this L. Flaccus was a flamen, and he may therefore have been either the L. Flaccus consul in B. C. 131 [No. 10], who was a flamen of Mars, or the L. Flaccus, a contemporary of Cicero [No. 18], who was also a flamen of Mars. (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 333.)
m taking any part in public affairs. The first time that he spoke in public was on behalf of his friend Vettius, who was under persecution, and whom he defended. On that occasion he is said to have surpassed all the other Roman orators. The people looked forward with great anticipations to his future career, but the aristocracy watched him with jealousy, seeing that he promised greater talent, energy, and passion than his brother, in whose footsteps it was presumed that he would follow. In B. C. 131, C. Papirius Carbo, a friend of the Gracchi, brought forward a bill to enable a person to hold the office of tribune for two or more consecutive years. C. Gracchus supported the bill, but it was rejected. The speech he delivered on that occasion appears again to have made a deep impression upon both parties; but after this time Caius obeyed the calling of his inner voice, and for a number of years kept altogether aloof from public affairs. During that period it was even rumoured that he di
d the tribunes of the plebs to be re-elected from year to year (Cic. de Amic. 25; Liv. Epit. 59). But although Laelius was the strenuous opponent of the popular leaders of his age--the tribunes C. Licinius Crassus, B. C. 145, C. Papirius Carbo, B. C. 131, and C. Gracchus B. C. 123-122 --nature had denied him the qualities of a great orator. His speeches read better than those of his contemporary and rival C. Servius Galba, yet Galba was doubtless the more eloquent. (Cic. Brut. 24.) Laelius in hs, B. C. 139. Laelius, after twice pleading in behalf of the revenuecontractors, resigned their cause to his rival C. Servius Galba, since it seemed to require a more acrimonious style than his own. (Cic. Brut. 22.) 3. Dissuasio Legis Papiriae, B. C. 131, against the law of C. Papirius Carbo, which enacted that a tribune, whose office had expired, might be re-elected as often as the people thought advisable. Scipio Africanus the younger supported, and C. Gracchus opposed Laelius in this debate.
Lici'nia 3. A daughter of P. Licinius Crassus, consul B. C. 131, married C. Sulpicius Galba, who was condemned in B. C. 110, for having been bribed by Jugurtha [GALBA, No. 8]. (Cic. Brut. 26, 33, de Orat. 1.56; comp. Tac. Hist. 1.15.)
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