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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 17 17 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 131 BC or search for 131 BC in all documents.

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Aristoni'cus 2. A natural son of Eumenes II. of Pergamus, who was succeeded by Attalus III. When the latter died in B. C. 133, and made over his kingdom to the Romans, Aristonicus claimed his father's kingdom as his lawful inheritance. The towns, for fear of the Romans, refused to recognise him, but he compelled them by force of arms; and at last there seemed no doubt of his ultimate success. In B. C. 131, the consul P. Licinius Crassus, who received Asia as his province, marched against him; but he was more intent upon making booty than on combating his enemy, and in an ill-organized battle which was fought about the end of the year, his army was defeated, and he himself made prisoner by Aristonicus. In the year following, B. C. 130, the consul M. Perperna, who succeeded Crassus, acted with more energy, and in the very first engagement conquered Aristonicus and took him prisoner. After the death of Perperna, M. Aquillius completed the conquest of the kingdom of Pergamus, B. C. 129.
C. 164, a son of No. 1, and a contemporary and friend of the Graechi; but though he apparently followed in the footsteps of Tib. Gracchus, yet his motives widely differed from those of his noble friend, and towards the end of his life he showed how little he had acted upon conviction or principle, by deserting his former friends and joining the ranks of their enemies. After the death of Tiberius Gracchus he was appointed his successor as triumvir agrorum diridendorum, and shortly after, in B. C. 131, he was elected tribune of the people. During the year of his tribuneship he brought forward two new laws: 1. That a person should be allowed to be re-elected to the tribuneship as often as might be thought advisable: this law, which was strenuously opposed by P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus the younger, was supported by C. Graechus; and 2. A lex tabellaria, which ordained that the people should in future vote by ballot in the enactment and repeal of laws. In his tribuneship he continued to
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Crassus, Clau'dius 8. P. LICINIUS CRASSUS DIVES MUCIANUS, was the adopted son of No. 7. (Cic. Brut. 26.) His natural father was P. Mucius Scaevola, who was consul B. C. 175. In the year B. C. 131 he was consul and pontifex maximus, and, according to Livy, was the first priest of that rank who went beyond Italy. (Epit. lix.) As pontifex maximus, he forbade his colleague, Valerius Flaccus, who was flamen Martialis, to undertake the command against Aristonicus, and imposed a fine upon him, in case of his leaving the sacred rites. The people remitted the fine, but shewed their sense of due priestly subordination by ordering the flamen to obey the pontiff. (Cic. Phil. 11.8.) Crassus, though his own absence was liable to similar objection, proceeded to oppose Aristonicus, who had occupied the kingdom of Pergamus, which had been bequeathed by Attalus to the Roman people. His expedition to Asia was unfortunate. He suffered a defeat at Leucae, and was overtaken in his flight between Elaea an
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Flaccus, Vale'rius 10. L. Valerius Flaccus, was flamen Martialis, and received the consulship in B. C. 131, with P. Licinius Crassus, then pontifex maximus. Flaccus wished to undertake the command in the war against Aristonicus in Asia, but his colleague fined him for deserting the sacra entrusted to his care. The people, before whom the question was brought for decision, cancelled the fine, but compelled the flamen Flaccus to obey the pontiff Crassus. (Cic. Phil. 11.8.) He may possibly be the same as the one whose quaestor, M. Aemilius Scaurus, wanted to bring an accusation against him (Cic. Divin. in Caec. 19), though it is uncertain whether Scaurus was quaestor in the praetorship or consulship of Flaccus.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
s Flaccus, the accuser of Carbo. (Cic. Fam. 9.21.) [L.S] There are several coins of the Valeria gens belonging to the family of the Flacci. Of these, three specimens are given below. The first has on the obverse the head of Pallas, and on the reverse Victory in a biga, with C. VA. C. F. FLAC. The second has on the obverse the head of Victory, and on the reverse the military standard of an eagle, between two other military standards, with C. VAL. FLA. IMPERAT. EX. S. C. This C. Valerius Flaccus may be the same as No. 14, whom Cicero calls Imperator. The third coin has on the obverse the head of Victory, and on the reverse Mars standing between an apex (Dict. of Ant. s.v.) and an ear of corn, with L. VALERI FLACCI. The apex shows that this L. Flaccus was a flamen, and he may therefore have been either the L. Flaccus consul in B. C. 131 [No. 10], who was a flamen of Mars, or the L. Flaccus, a contemporary of Cicero [No. 18], who was also a flamen of Mars. (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 333.)
m taking any part in public affairs. The first time that he spoke in public was on behalf of his friend Vettius, who was under persecution, and whom he defended. On that occasion he is said to have surpassed all the other Roman orators. The people looked forward with great anticipations to his future career, but the aristocracy watched him with jealousy, seeing that he promised greater talent, energy, and passion than his brother, in whose footsteps it was presumed that he would follow. In B. C. 131, C. Papirius Carbo, a friend of the Gracchi, brought forward a bill to enable a person to hold the office of tribune for two or more consecutive years. C. Gracchus supported the bill, but it was rejected. The speech he delivered on that occasion appears again to have made a deep impression upon both parties; but after this time Caius obeyed the calling of his inner voice, and for a number of years kept altogether aloof from public affairs. During that period it was even rumoured that he di
d the tribunes of the plebs to be re-elected from year to year (Cic. de Amic. 25; Liv. Epit. 59). But although Laelius was the strenuous opponent of the popular leaders of his age--the tribunes C. Licinius Crassus, B. C. 145, C. Papirius Carbo, B. C. 131, and C. Gracchus B. C. 123-122 --nature had denied him the qualities of a great orator. His speeches read better than those of his contemporary and rival C. Servius Galba, yet Galba was doubtless the more eloquent. (Cic. Brut. 24.) Laelius in hs, B. C. 139. Laelius, after twice pleading in behalf of the revenuecontractors, resigned their cause to his rival C. Servius Galba, since it seemed to require a more acrimonious style than his own. (Cic. Brut. 22.) 3. Dissuasio Legis Papiriae, B. C. 131, against the law of C. Papirius Carbo, which enacted that a tribune, whose office had expired, might be re-elected as often as the people thought advisable. Scipio Africanus the younger supported, and C. Gracchus opposed Laelius in this debate.
Lici'nia 3. A daughter of P. Licinius Crassus, consul B. C. 131, married C. Sulpicius Galba, who was condemned in B. C. 110, for having been bribed by Jugurtha [GALBA, No. 8]. (Cic. Brut. 26, 33, de Orat. 1.56; comp. Tac. Hist. 1.15.)
line, the humanity which he displayed on one occasion towards the enemy (a rare virtue with Roman generals !), and the prudence and skill with which he prosecuted the war, are particularly celebrated by Valerius Maximus and Frontinus. But he sullied his reputation by the efforts which he used to render his army as inefficient as possible on his departure from the province, in order that his successor, Q. Pompeius, whom he envied and hated, might find it difficult to obscure his glory. In B. C. 131 Metellus was censor with Q. Pompeius, the first time that both the censors were elected from the plebs. In his censorship Metellus proposed that every Roman should be compelled to marry, for the purpose of increasing the free population of the city: the oration which he delivered on the subject was extant in the time of Augustus, and was read by that emperor in the senate when he brought forward his law de Maritandis Ordinibus. (Suet. Aug. 89.) Some fragments of it are preserved by A. Gell
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Mithridates Euergetes (search)
that of his father in the treaty concluded by Pharnaces with Eumenes, in a manner that would lead one to suppose he was already admitted to some share in the sovereign power. (Plb. 26.6.) He was the first of the kings of Pontus who entered into a regular alliance with the Romans, whom he supported with some ships and a small auxiliary force during the third Punic war. (Appian, App. Mith. 10.) At a subsequent period he rendered them more efficient assistance in the war against Aristonicus (B. C. 131-129), and for his services on this occasion was rewarded by the consul M'. Aquillius with the province of Phrygia. The acts of Aquillius were rescinded by the senate on the ground of bribery, but it appears that Mithridates continued in possession of Phrygia till his death. (Just. 37.1, 38.5; Appian, App. Mith. 12, 56, 57 ; Oros. 5.10; Eutrop. 4.20, who, however, confounds him with his son.) The close of his reign carl only be determined approximately, from the statements concerning the ac
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