description and worked with great skill. The most valuable pieces, accordingly, Himilcar sent
to Carthage, among which, as it turned out, was
the bull of Phalaris,Cp. Book 9.18-19. and the
rest of the pillage he sold as booty. As regards this bull,
although Timaeus in his History has maintained that it never existed at all, he
has been refuted by Fortune herself; for some two hundred and sixty years after the capture of
Acragas, when Scipio sacked Carthage,In 146 B.C. he returned to the Acragantini, together with their other
possessions still in the hands of the Carthaginians, the bull, which was still in Acragas at the time this history was being written. I have been led to speak of this matter
rather copiously because Timaeus, who criticized most bitterly the historians before his time
and left the writers of history bereft of all forgiveness, is himself caught improvising in the
very province where he most proclaims his own accu
ange is due to the Achaean League.A league of states in the northern Peloponnesus. It was most influential in the second half of the third century B.C. Founded 280 B.C. The Corinthians, being members of it, joined in the war against the Romans, which Critolaus, when appointed general of the Achaeans, brought about by persuading to revolt both the Achaeans and the majority of the Greeks outside the Peloponnesus. When the Romans won the war, they carried out a general disarmament of the Greeks146 B.C. and dismantled the walls of such cities as were fortified. Corinth was laid waste by Mummius, who at that time commanded the Romans in the field, and it is said that it was afterwards refounded by Caesar,44 B.C. who was the author of the present constitution of Rome. Carthage, too, they say, was refounded in his reign.
In the Corinthian territory is also the place called Cromyon from Cromus the son of Poseidon. Here they say that Phaea was bred; overcoming this sow was one of the traditiona
a Zeus facing the rising of the sun, twelve feet high and dedicated, they say, by the Lacedaemonians, when they entered on a war with the Messenians after their second revolt. On it is an elegiac couplet:Accept, king, son of Cronus, Olympian Zeus, a lovely image,And have a heart propitious to the Lacedaemonians.
We know of no Roman, either commoner or senator, who gave a votive offering to a Greek sanctuary before Mummius, and he dedicated at Olympia a bronze Zeus from the spoils of Achaia146 B.C.. It stands on the left of the offering of the Lacedaemonians by the side of the first pillar on this side of the temple. The largest of the bronze images of Zeus in the Altis is twenty-seven feet high, and was dedicated by the Eleans themselves from the plunder of the war with the Arcadians.
Beside the Pelopium is a pillar of no great height with a small image of Zeus on it; one hand is outstretched. Opposite this are other offerings in a row, and likewise images of Zeus and Ganymedes.
le, were one and all put down.
A few years later the Romans took pity on Greece, restored the various old racial confederacies, with the right to acquire property in a foreign country, and remitted the fines imposed by Mummius. For he had ordered the Boeotians to pay a hundred talents to the people of Heracleia and Euboea, and the Achaeans to pay two hundred to the Lacedaemonians. Although the Romans granted the Greeks remission of these payments, yet down to my day a Roman governor has been sent to the country. The Romans call him the Governor, not of Greece, but of Achaia, because the cause of the subjection of Greece was the Achaeans, at that time at the head of the Greek nation.With Frazer's reading: “when the Romans subdued Greece, Achaia was at the head, etc.” This war came to an end when Antitheus was archon at Athens, in the hundred and sixtieth Olympiad140 B.C., at which Diodorus of Sicyon was victorious.Pausanias seems to have made a mistake, as Corinth was taken in 146 B.C.
us was commissioned by Philip V to take Ithome but was killed in the attack (see Polybius 3.19, 7.11). "for if you hold both horns," he said, "you will hold down the cow," meaning by "horns" Ithome and Acrocorinthus, and by "cow" the Peloponnesus. And indeed it is because of their advantageous position that these cities have been objects of contention. Corinth was destroyed and rebuilt again by the Romans;Leucius Mummius (cp. 8. 6. 23) the consul captured Corinth and destroyed it by fire in 146 B.C.; but it was rebuilt again by Augustus. and Messene was destroyed by the Lacedaemonians but restored by the Thebans and afterward by Philip the son of Amyntas. The citadels, however, remained uninhabited.
The temple of Artemis at Limnae, at which the Messenians are reputed to have outraged the maidens who had come to the sacrifice,Cp. 6. 1. 6. is on the boundaries between Laconia and Messenia, where both peoples held assemblies and offered sacrifice in common; and they say that it was
voyage he told enquirers that he had been sent as ambassador to request a reduction in their tribute; for, he said, they were paying one hundred and fifty drachmas when they could only with difficulty pay one hundred. Aratus also points out the poverty of the island in his CataleptonO Leto, shortly thou wilt pass by me, who am like either iron Pholegandros or worthless Gyaros.Aratus Catalepton Fr.
Now although Delos had become so famous, yet the razing of Corinth to the ground by the Romans146 B.C. increased its fame still more; for the importers changed their business to Delos because they were attracted both by the immunity which the temple enjoyed and by the convenient situation of the harbor; for it is happily situated for those who are sailing from Italy and Greece to Asia. The general festival is a kind of commercial affair, and it was frequented by Romans more than by any other people, even when Corinth was still in existence.As many as ten thousand slaves were sold there
undred and fifty years. The soldiers, who made their escape to Carpessus, were stationed on the walls of the town by the quæstor who accompanied Vetilius, badly demoralized. Having asked and obtained 5000 allies from the Belli and Titthi, he sent them against Viriathus who slew them all, so that there was not one left to tell the tale. After that the quæstor remained quietly in the town waiting for help from Rome.
Viriathus overran the fruitful country of Carpetania B.C. 146 without hinderance, and ravaged it until Caius Plautius came from Rome bringing 10,000 foot and 1300 horse. Then Viriathus again feigned flight and Plautius sent 4000 men to pursue him but he turned upon them and killed all except a few. Then he crossed the river Tagus and encamped on a mountain covered with olive-trees, called Venus' mountain. There Plautius overtook him, and eager to retrieve his misfortune, joined battle with him, but was defeated with great slaughter, and fled in disorder
of a circle. A shout went up as though a victory had been gained, the Carthaginians became alarmed, while the Romans mounted on all sides, despising the danger, and filled up the vacant spaces with timbers, engines, and scaffolding, the guards making only a feeble resistance because they were weak from hunger and downcast in spirit. The wall around Cothon being taken, Scipio seized the neighboring forum. Being unable to do more, as it was now nightfall, he and his whole force passed the B.C. 146 night there under arms. At daylight he brought in 4000 fresh troops. They entered the temple of Apollo, whose statue was there, covered with gold, in a shrine of beaten gold, weighing 1000 talents, which they plundered, chopping it with their swords, disregarding the commands of their officers until they had divided it among themselves, after which they returned to their duty.
Now Scipio hastened to the attack of Byrsa, the strongest part of the city, where the greater part of the inhab
But the majority had fallen under the spell of Heracleides's
cunning, and were induced to pass the following decree:
"Alexander and Laodice, children of a king,
our friend and ally, appeared before the Senate
and stated their case; and the Senate gave them
authority to return to the kingdom of their forefathers; and help, in accordance with their request, is hereby
decreed to them." Seizing on this pretext, Heracleides immediately began hiring mercenaries, and calling on some men of
high position to assist him. He accordingly went to Ephesus
and devoted himself to the preparations for his attempt.Alexander Balas was an impostor of low origin set up by Heracleides as
a son of Antiochus Epiphanes. He entered Syria in B.C. 152, defeated and
killed Demetrius in B.C. 150, and was himself defeated in B.C. 146 by Ptolemy
Philometor (who also fell) in favour of a son of Demetrius, and was shortly
afterwards murdered. Livy, Ep. 52, Appian, Syr. 67;
Joseph. Antiq. 13, 2, 4. . . .
t I made a careful division of all the most important countries
in the world and the course of their several histories; pursued
exactly the same plan in regard to the order of taking the several
divisions; and, moreover, arranged the history of each year in
the respective countries, carefully keeping to the limits of the
time: and the result is that I have made the transition backwards and forwards between my continuous narrative and the
continually recurring interruptions easy and obvious to students,
so that an attentive reader need never miss anything. . . .
After various operations during the autumn of B. C. 147, the
upshot of which was to put the whole of the open country in
Roman hands, in the beginning of spring B. C. 146, Scipio delivered
his final attack on Carthage, taking first the quarter of the merchants' harbour, then the war harbour, and then the market-place.
There only remained the streets leading to the Byrsa and the
Byrsa itself. Appian, Pun. 123-126. Livy, Ep. 51.