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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 14 14 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 8 8 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 2 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 147 BC or search for 147 BC in all documents.

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Ammo'nius a favourite of ALEXANDER Balas, king of Syria, to whom Alexander entrusted the entire management of public affairs. Ammonius was avaricious and cruel; he put to death numerous friends of the king, the queen Laodice, and Antigonus, the son of Demetrius. Being detected in plotting against the life of Ptolemy Philometor, about B. C. 147, the latter required Alexander to surrender Ammonius to him; but though Alexander refused to do this, Ammonius was put to death by the inhabitants of Antioch, whom Ptolemy had induced to espouse his cause. (Liv. Epit. 50; J. AJ 13.4.5; Diod. Exc. 29, p. 628, ed. Wess.)
entrusted to Manilius, and that of the fleet to Censorinus. In the negotiations between the consuls and Carthaginians which preceded actual hostilities, and of which Appian has given us a detailed account, Censorinus acted as spokesman because he was the better orator. After the Carthaginians had refused compliance with the commands of the Romans, who required them to abandon Carthage and build another town not less than ten miles from the sea, the consuls formally laid siege to the city; but Censorinus was compelled shortly afterwards to return to Rome in order to hold the comitia, leaving the conduct of the siege in the hands of his colleague. (Appian, App. Pun. 75-90, 97-99; Liv. Epit. 49; Flor. 2.15; Eutrop. 4.10; Oros. 4.22; Vell. 1.13; Zonar. ix. p. 463; Cic. Brut. 15, 27, ad Att. 12.5.) Censorinus was censor in B. C. 147, with L. Cornelius Lentulus Lupus. (V. Max. 6.9.10.) It was to this Censorinus that the philosopher Cleitomachus dedicated one of his works. (Cic. Ac. 2.32.)
Critola'us (*Krito/laos), an Achaean, who succeeded Diaeus, in B. C. 147, as strategus of the Achaeans, and was as bitter an enemy of the Romans as his predecessor. As soon as he entered upon his office, he began insulting the Roman ambassadors and breaking off all negotiations with them. After their departure for Italy, he had recourse to all the demagogic artifices that he could devise, in order to render the rupture between the Romans and Achaeans irremediable. During the ensuing winter he travelled from one town to another, inflaming the people by his furious speeches against the Romans. He tried especially to work upon the populace in the towns of Greece, and resorted to the most iniquitous means to obtain their favour. Thus he extorted a promise from the magistrates of several towns to take care that no debtor should be compelled to pay his debts before the war with Rome should be brought to a close. By these and similar means he won the enthusiastic admiration of the multitude
orted by Menalcides, who assured the Spartans, on his return, that the Romans had declared in favour of their independence, while an equally positive assurance to the opposite effect was given by Diaeus to the Achaeans,--the truth being that the senate had passed no final decision at all, but had promised to send commissioners to settle the dispute. War was renewed between the parties, B. C. 148, in spite of the prohibition of the Romans, to which, however, Diaeus, who was again general in B. C. 147, paid more obedience, though he endeavoured to bring over the towns round Sparta by negotiation. When the decree of the Romans arrived, which severed Sparta and several other states from the Achaean league, Diaeus took a leading part in keeping up the indignation of the Achaeans, and in urging them to the acts of violence which caused war with Rome. In the autumn of 147 he was succeeded by Critolaüs, but the death of the latter before the expiration of his year of office once more placed D
Drusus 3. C. LIVIUS M. AEMILIANI F. M. N. DRUSUS, was consul in B. C. 147 with P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus. Of his father nothing is known, but it may be inferred with much probability that M. Drusus Aemilianus belonged to the Aemilia gens, and was adopted by some M. Livius Drusus. It is possible, however, that M. Livius Drusus, hastily inferred, that Drusus the jurist was anterior to Aufidius, and was never seen by Cicero, and could not have been the son of the Drusus who was consul in B. C. 147. Others are disposed to identify the jurist with the son, No. 5, and there is certainly no absurdity in supposing the son of one who was consul in B. C. 147 to hB. C. 147 to have died at an advanced age before Cicero (born B. C. 106) happened to meet him, or was old enough to remember him. Seeing, however, that Cicero was an active and inquisitive student at 16, and considering the inferences as to age that may be collected from the years when No. 4 and No. 6, the brother and nephew of No. 5, held offic
eding in dislodging him from thence, he was repulsed with heavy loss, and suffered severely in his retreat. (Appian, App. Pun. 74, 80, 93, 94, 97, 102-104; Liv. Epit. xlix.) A second attempt on the part of Manilius having proved equally unsuccessful, Hasdrubal became so elated that he aspired to the sole command, and procured the deposition of the other Hasdrubal, the grandson of Masinissa [No. 14], who had hitherto held the command within the city (Id. 108, 111). On the arrival of Scipio (B. C. 147) to carry on the war, which had been so much mismanaged by his predecessors, Hasdrubal advanced close to the walls of Carthage, and encamped within five stadia of the city, immediately opposite to the camp of the Roman general. But notwithstanding this proximity, he did not prevent Scipio from surprising by a night attack the quarter of the city called Megara. By way of revenging himself for this disaster, Hasdrubal, who had now withdrawn his forces within the walls of Carthage, put to dea
as still exacted the money he had agreed for, and then evaded the payment of his portion to Callicrates. The latter accordingly retaliated on him with a capital charge of having attempted to prevail on the Romans to sever Sparta from the league; and Menalcidas only escaped the danger through the protection of Diaeus, which he purchased with a bribe of three talents. [CALLICRATES, No. 4.] In B. C. 149 he supported at Rome, against Diaeus, the cause of the Lacedaemonian exiles. [DIAEUS.] In B. C. 147, when the war between the Achaeans and Lacedaemonians had been suspended at the command of Caecilius Metellus, he persuaded his countrymen to break the truce, and seized and plundered Iasus, a subject town of the Achaeans on the borders of Laconia. The Lacedaemonians, soon repenting of their rashness, were loud in their outcry against their adviser; and he, driven to despair, put an end to his own life by poison, "having shown himself," says Pausanias, "as leader of the Lacedaemonians at t
thage, and the opinion became general at Rome that the conduct of the war ought to be entrusted to him. Even the aged Cato, who was always more ready to blame than to praise, praised Scipio in the Homeric words (Od. 10.495), " He alone has wisdom, the rest are empty shadows" (Plut. Cat. Maj. 27). The prepossession in favour of Scipio was still further increased by the want of success which attended the operations of Piso ; and, accordingly, when he became a candidate for the aedileship for B. C. 147 he was elected consul, although he was only thirty-seven, and had not therefore attained the legal age. The senate, of course, assigned to him Africa as his province, to which he forthwith sailed, accompanied by his friends Polybius and Laelius. The details of the war, which ended in the capture of Carthage, are given by Appian (Pun. 113-131) and would take up too much space to be repeated here. The Carthaginians defended themselves with the courage of despair. They were able to maintain p
Sosi'crates (*Swsikra/ths), a vice-general of the Achaeans in their war against the Romans (B. C. 147), was the chief mover of the resolution, taken by an assembly held at Corinth, to endeavour to treat with Metellus; for which act, upon the arrival of Diaeus at Corinth, he was condemned to death; and, in the hope of extorting a confession from him, he was subjected to the severest tortures, under which he expired. This cruel deed so disgusted the people, that Diaeus did not venture to carry out his intention of putting to death the ambassadors who had been sent to Metellus. (Plb. 40.5; Thirlwall, Hist. of Greece, vol. viii. p. 451.) [P.
Thea'ridas 2. An Achaean who was sent by his countrymen as ambassador to Rome in B. C. 159. (Plb. 32.17.) In B. C. 147, he was again placed at the head of an embassy which was designed to excuse the insult offered to the Roman legate Aurelius Orestes, but having on his way to Italy met with the Roman deputy Sex. Julius Caesar, who was appointed to investigate the subject, he was compelled to return with him to Achaia. (Id. 38.2.) [E.H.B]
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