o, of Alexandria.
Hero's steam-engine. was a rotary engine, in which steam issued from the ends of bent arms and by reaction rotated the hollow shaft or sphere to which the arms were attached.
Hero's engine revolved in the Serapion about 150 B. C., and many applications for patents in the United States and other countries have been made for the same device within a few years past.
Inventors seem loth to give up this simplest form of engine, but it is not probable that it will ever prove the liquid in the graduated tube.
It was a faulty arrangement, as changes in the atmospheric pressure would vary the result, and the truth could only be ascertained by correction with reference to a barometer.
In the Spiritalia of Hero, B. C. 150, an instrument is described wherein water is made to rise and fall by the changes of temperature.
The Spanish Saracens used a form of hydrometer to detect variations in temperature.
See areometer; hydrometer; thermometer.
Heat expands the ai
the one which is just exhausted; the other man is holding the rod of metal in the fire.
The oldest form of wind-bag was probably the skin of an animal sewed up, or else a wooden reed with a piston like that of a popgun, until tubes were bored out of wood or made of a ring of bark taken from a tree.
Our common bellows, consisting of two boards joined by a piece of leather, was early known to the Greeks and Romans.
See Fig. 145.
Egyptian bellows (Thebes).
In the Spiritalia of Hero, 150 B. C., is described a steam-boiler from which a hot-air blast, or hot air mixed with steam, is blown into the fire, and from which hot water flows, or cold is introduced.
Double foot-bellows, and duplicate pipes to the iron furnace, with four tuyeres, are shown in the paintings of Kourna, Thebes.
The blow-pipe and tongs in connection with a smelting-furnace in the same place.
The mention of the burning of the bellows in Jeremiah VI. 29, seems to have been in connection with lead and silve
was visited by an august procession of philosophers during the seven centuries which separated Aristarchus from Hypatia.
On the instrument, which had a plane parallel to the equator and a gnomon parallel to the earth's polar axis, Hipparchus, 150 B. C., learned the length of the year, that the four quarters of the year are not of equal length, and also observed the precession of the equinoxes.
See armillary sphere.
Before the time of the erection of a sun-dial in the Quirinus by L. Pap
One having two cylinders in which the pistons act alternately.
They may be single-acting or double-acting, that is, the cylinder may receive and deliver water at and from each end. The pumps of Hero of Alexandria, 150 B. C., were all single-acting, but one of them at least had a double cylinder.
A form of engine having two communicating cylinders of varying capacities; there are many modifications in the arrangements and
om a tub after each discharge.
In this form it existed till a late day.
Hero's fire-engine (150 B. C.).
The oldest known engine is described in the Spiritalia of Hero, about 150 B. C., and the150 B. C., and the description might stand for the ordinary form of hand-engine used at the present day. The drawing is made from the description.
The engine had two single-acting pumps worked by one beam by means of
Fire-ships were used at the siege of insular Tyre.
By the Rhodians against the Syrians, 150 B. C.
In the action near Carthage, when the fleet of Basilicus was destroyed by Genseric.
In tlone to do.
Many ingenious pneumatic and hydraulic devices are shown in Spiritalia Heronis, 150 B. C. Some were toys merely, and some, probably, were a part of the illusive machinery of the temples.
Hero's fountain (150 B. C.).
In the fountain of Hero, the motion of a column of water is transmitted to another by the intervention of a body of air between the two.
The pressure of the el
in one case by two elbows and pairs of rings which slip on each other, and in the other case by a spherical segment and socket.
These machines are made to collect the water of a number of hose-pipes into one stream which may be directed in one jet of from 4 to 7 inches in diameter upon a bank at a distance of 200 feet, if necessary to stand at that distance to avoid caving.
（Music.) A water-organ.
This form was known to the Alexandrian Greeks in the time of Hero, 150 B. C. It is supposed that air was forced by means of water.
If so, it was rather a water-bellows. See organ.
（Machinery.) A contrivance of Girard by which a film or body of water is introduced below the end of a vertical axis to bear the weight thereof, and prevent the actual friction of the axis on its step.
The hydraulic pivot, or liquid bearing, for stepping vertical shafts, is described in Bramah's planing-machine, English patent, 1802.
s of Ghizeh and Sakkarah.
The festival of Isis at Busiris was called the Feast of Lamps.
The lamps had wicks floating in oil which rested on salt-water.
They were used in the tabernacle and in the temple of the Jews.
In Hero's Spiritalia, 150 B. C., is a description of a lamp (g) in which a supply of oil from a reservoir below is driven up by means of air introduced into the base by an air-pump.
In another form of Hero's lamp, the oil is raised by water, introduced below the oil by meansf chambers at different levels, until it attains the proper consistency for molding.
The mass is then divided into regular and equal prisms by means of a mold, and these are placed on drying-shelves until sufficiently dry for burning.
Cato (150 B. C.) gave directions for forming a lime-kiln.
He preferred a truncated cone, 10 feet in diameter at the bottom, 20 feet high, and 3 feet diameter at the top. The grate covered the whole bottom; there was a pit below for the ashes, and two furnace-
made by the Chaldeans, by Eratosthenes, by Al Maimon, by Pire, and more lately by the French, English, Germans, and others; in Peru, Lapland, British India, and elsewhere.
(See armil ; armillary-sphere ; astronomical instruments ; odometer.) We regard Eratosthenes with profound respect as the author of the science of geography, and the name thereof.
The extent of each zone he determined by the length of the solstitial day, and called them elimates.
The map of the world by Hipparchus (150 B. C.) is founded on the discoveries of Eratosthenes, and is the first recorded attempt to assign geographical positions by longitudes and latitudes, obtained, the former from lunar eclipses, and the latter from lengths of the shadow measured by the gnomon.
In Strabo's time, about the Christian era, it was customary to draw a meridian and parallel for each important place whose position was considered as determined.
Ptolemy, about A. D. 150, simplified the method, and probably introduced the
outh-organ, or Pandean pipes, was expanded into an instrument resembling the bagpipes, in which the air for supplying the pipes producing the musical tones was blown by the performer.
In the Spiritalia of Hero of Alexandria, who flourished 150 B. C., we find a description of an organ blown by the agency of a wind-mill which works the piston of the air-pump.
Its invention is, perhaps, to be credited to Ctesibus of Alexandria, though it is likely that it was the result of the gradual improv, from the text of the Spiritalia.
The descriptions of it by Athenaeus, Vitruvius, and Claudian render it certain that the pipes were musical, and blown by the force of water, instead of expansible air-bellows.
An organ blown by wind-power, 150 B. C.
Athenaeus thus describes it:–
And Alcides said: But this engine, the hydraulic organ, whether you choose to class it among stringed instruments or among wind instruments, is the invention of a fellow-countryman of mine, an Alexandrian
cylinder is found in some of the ancient blowing-machines of the native metallurgists of Asia and Africa.
This was much earlier than the air-pumps of Ctesibus, 150 B. C. See Spiritalia Heronis.
It is believed that Papin's pistons were of wood, and that Cartwright was the first to use a metallic piston.
One of Cartwright's ve other water. The principle is the same, and the turbine invented by Fourneyron, in 1823, does not differ in its principle of action from the aeolipile of Hero, 150 B. C., or the reaction water-wheel of Barker, say A. D. 1740.
We are much indebted to the worthy Otto Guericke, a magistrate of Magdeburg, for re-inventing the air-nt form of blast for the native smelting-furnaces of Asia, Africa, and Europe.
See page 1717.
The water-pump of Ctesibus of Alexandria was described by Hero, 150 B. C., and the invention may be much older than the time of this distinguished mechanician and physicist, who was also a barber, as it certainly was in quite a com- p
an intellectual nation, we know not.
It was a favorite contrivance with Hero of Alexandria, 150 B. C., in his various toys and automata, of which the cup of Tantalus is a favorite instance, and ha steam.
HeroGreekRotary steam-engine (recoil principle）B. C. 150
HeroGreekCylinder and piston in pumps.150
HeroGreekWater fountain caused by pressure of steam15
The original steam-engine is the Aeolipile of Hero, exhibited in the Serapeum of Alexandria, 150 B. C. It is a true rotary steam-engine, and there are quite a number of late patents in which the sa, differs in no essential respect from one of the devices exhibited in the Pneumatics of Hero, 150 B. C. This was substantially as follows: A light being placed upon an altar heated a vessel of waterteam upon the surface of the water in a reservoir.
This is shown in the Spiritalia of Hero, 150 B. C., in several forms.
The device was a part of the priestly jugglery of the temple.
The fire, b