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The Necessity of Caution in Dealing with an Enemy TIBERIUS a Roman Pro-consul fell into an ambuscade, Fall of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus [Cons. B. C. 215 and 213] as he was advancing from Lucania to Capua, by the treachery of the Lucanian Flavius, B. C. 212. Livy, 25, 16. and, after offering with his attendants a gallant resistance to the enemy, was killed. Now in regard to such catastrophes, whether it is right to blame or pardon the sufferers is by no means a safe matter on which to pronounce an opinion; because it has happened to several men, who have been perfectly correct in all their actions, to fall into these misfortunes, equally with those who do not scruple to transgress principles of right confirmed by the consent of mankind. We should not however idly refrain from pronouncing an opinion: but should blame or condone this or that general, after a review of the necessities of the moment and the circumstances of the case. Fall of Archidamus, B. C. 226-225. And my observatio
Antiochus the Great at Armosata In the reign of Xerxes, prince of the city of Armosata, situated on the "Fair Plain," between In the course of his campaigns for the recovering of the eastern provinces (B. C. 212-205). Antiochus makes a demonstration before the city of Armosata, in Armenia, to recover the arrears of tribute owed by the late king, B. C. 212. the Tigris and Euphrates, King Antiochus encamped under its walls and prepared to attack it. When he saw the king's forces, Xerxes at first conveyed himself away; but feeling afterwards that, if his palace were seized by his enemies, his whole kingdom would be overthrown, he changed his mind, and sent a message to Antiochus declaring his wish for a conference. The most loyal of the friends of Antiochus were against letting the young prince go when they once got him into their hands, and advised Antiochus to take possession of the town, and hand over the principality to Mithridates, his own sister's son. The king, however, would not
Fall of Syracuse, B. C. 212 He counted the layers; for as the The method taken by a Roman to estimate the height of the wall of Syracuse. Livy, 25, 23. tower had been built of regular layers of stone, it was very easy to reckon the height of the battlements from the ground. . . . Some days afterwards on information being given by a deserter that the Syracusans had been engaged in a public sacrifice to Artemis for the last three days; and that they were using very scanty food in the festival t
all somewhat lower
than the rest, and thinking it probable that the men were
drunk, owing to the license of the hour, and the short supply of
food with their wine, he determined to attempt an escalade. Fall of Syracuse by an escalade,
autumn B. C. 212. Livy, 24, 23-31.
Two ladders of the proper height for the wall having been
quickly made, he pressed on the undertaking. He spoke
openly to those who were fit to make the ascent and to face
the first and most conspicuous risk, holding out to them
Beasts of Burden Used as a Defensive Wall He gave orders that the infantry should take the beasts of burden along with the baggage tied upon them from the rear and range them in front of themselves. This produced a defence of greater security than any palisade.This fragment is supposed, by comparison with Livy, 25, 36, to belong to the account of the fall of Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio in Spain, B. C. 212. . . . So entirely unable are the majority of mankind to submit to that lightest of all burdens—-silence. . . . Anything in the future seems preferable to what exists in the present. . .
The Hannibalian War In the previous year (212 B. C.) Syracuse had fallen: the two Scipios had been conquered and killed in Spain: the siegeworks had been constructed round Capua, at the very time of the fall of Syracuse, i. e. in the autumn, Hannibal being engaged in fruitless attempts upon the citadel of Tarentum. See Livy, 25, 22. Entirely surrounding the position of Appius Claudius, B. C. 211. Coss. Gnaeus Fulvius Centumalus, P. Sulpicius Galba. The Romans were still engaged in the siege of Capua. Hannibal at first skirmished, and tried all he could to tempt him to come out and give him battle. But as no one attended to him, his attack became very like an attempt to storm the camp; for his cavalry charged in their squadrons, and with loud cries hurled their javelins inside the entrenchments, and the infantry attacked in their regular companies, and tried to pull down the palisading round the camp.Q. Fulvius and Appius Claudius, the Consuls of the previous year, were continued in
The Spoils of Syracuse: Works of Art Taken To Rome A city is not really adorned by what is brought from without, but by the virtue of its own inhabitants. . . . The Romans, then, decided to transfer these things to their own city and to leave nothing behind. Syracuse was taken in the autumn, B. C. 212. "The ornaments of the city, statues and pictures were taken to Rome." Livy, 25, 40, cp. 26, 21. Whether they were right in doing so, and consulted their true interests or the reverse, is a matter admitting of much discussion; but I think the balance of argument is in favour of believing it to have been wrong then, and wrong now. If such had been the works by which they had exalted their country, it is clear that there would have been some reason in transferring thither the things by which they had become great. But the fact was that, while leading lives of the greatest simplicity themselves, as far as possible removed from the luxury and extravagance which these things imply, they yet
Spain The leaders of the Carthaginians, though they had The two Scipios fall in B. C. 212. conquered their enemies, could not control themselves: and having made up their minds Hasdrubal Gisconis tertius Carthaginiensium dux. Livy, 24, 41, cp. 25, 37. that they had put an end to the Roman war, they began quarrelling with each other, finding continual subjects of dispute through the innate covetousness and ambition of the Phoenician character; among whom Hasdrubal, son of Gesco, pushed his authority to such a pitch of iniquity as to demand a large sum of money from Andobales, the most faithful of all their Iberian friends, who had some time before lost his chieftainship for the sake of the Carthaginians, and had but recently recovered it through his loyalty to them. When Andobales, trusting to his long fidelity to Carthage, refused this demand, Hasdrubal got up a false charge against him and compelled him to give up his daughters as hostages. . . .