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Character of Hiero II For, in the first place, Hiero gained the sovereignty of Character of Hiero II., King of Syracuse, from B. C. 269 to B. C. 215. Syracuse and her allies by his own unaided abilities without inheriting wealth, or reputation, or any other advantage of fortune. And, in the second place, was established king of Syracuse without putting to death, banishing, or harassing any one of the citizens,—which is the most astonishing circumstance of all. And what is quite as surprising as the innocence of his acquisition of power is the fact that it did not change his character. For during a reign of fifty-four years he preserved peace for the country, maintained his own power free from all hostile plots, and entirely escaped the envy which generally follows greatness; for though he tried on several occasions to lay down his power, he was prevented by the common remonstrances of the citizens. And having shown himself most beneficent to the Greeks, and most anxious to earn their
Treaty Between Hannibal and King Philip V. of Macedon This is a sworn treaty made between Hannibal, Mago, Preamble of a treaty made between Philip and Hannibal, by envoys sent after the battle of Cannae. Ratified subsequently to March 13. B. C. 215. See Livy, 23, 33-39. Ante 3, 2. Barmocarus, and such members of the Carthaginian Gerusia as were present, and all Carthaginians serving in his army, on the one part; and Xenophanes, son of Cleomachus of Athens, sent to us by King Philip, as his ambassador, on behalf of himself, the Macedonians, and their allies, on the other part. The oath is taken in the presence of Zeus,Gods by whom the oath is taken on either side. Here, and Apollo: of the god of the Carthaginians, Hercules, and Iolaus: of Ares, Triton, Poseidon: of the gods that accompany the army, and of the sun, moon, and earth: of rivers, harbours, waters: of all the gods who rule Carthage: of all the gods who rule Macedonia and the rest of Greece: of all the gods of war that are w
Messene and Philip V. in B. C. 215 Democracy being established at Messene, and the men Political state of Messene. of rank having been banished, while those who had received allotments on their lands obtained the chief influence in the government, those of the old citizens who remained found it very hard to put up with the equality which these men had obtained. . . . Gorgus of Messene, in wealth and extraction, was inferiorThe character of the Messenian athlete and statesman Gorgus. See ante. 5. 5. to no one in the town; and had been a famous athlete in his time, far surpassing all rivals in that pursuit. In fact he was not behind any man of his day in physical beauty, or the general dignity of his manner of life, or the number of prizes he had won. Again, when he gave up athletics and devoted himself to politics and the service of his country, he gained no less reputation in this department than in his former pursuit. For he was removed from the Philistinism that usually characteris
Philip Dissuaded from Taking Messene Philip, king of the Macedonians, being desirous of Philip V. of Macedon at Messene, B. C. 215. See Plutarch, Arat. 49-50. seizing the acropolis of Messene, told the leaders of the city that he wished to see it and to sacrifice to Zeus, and accordingly walked up thither with his attendants and joined in the sacrifice. When, according to custom, the entrails of the slaughtered victims were brought to him, he took them in his hands, and, turning round a little to one side, held them out to Aratus and asked him "what he thought the sacrifices indicated? To quit the citadel or hold it?" Thereupon Demetrius struck in on the spur of the moment by saying, "If you have the heart of an augur,—to quit it as quick as you can: but if of a gallant and wise king, to keep it, lest if you quit it now you may never have so good an opportunity again: for it is by thus holding the two horns that you can alone keep the ox under your control." By the "two horns" he mea
The War of Antiochus with Achaeus (See 5, 107） Round Sardis ceaseless and protracted skirmishes were Siege of Sardis from the end of B. C. 216 to autumn of B. C. 215. taking place and fighting by night and day, both armies inventing every possible kind of plot and counterplot against each other: to describe which in detail would be as useless as it would be in the last degree wearisome. At last, when the siege had already entered upon its second year, Lagoras the Cretan came forward. He had had a considerable experience in war, and had learnt that as a rule cities fall into the hands of their enemies most easily from some neglect on the part of their inhabitants, when, trusting to the natural or artificial strength of their defences, they neglect to keep proper guard and become thoroughly careless. He had observed too, that in such fortified cities captures were effected at the points of greatest strength, which were believed to have been despaired of by the enemy. So in the present
The Necessity of Caution in Dealing with an Enemy TIBERIUS a Roman Pro-consul fell into an ambuscade, Fall of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus [Cons. B. C. 215 and 213] as he was advancing from Lucania to Capua, by the treachery of the Lucanian Flavius, B. C. 212. Livy, 25, 16. and, after offering with his attendants a gallant resistance to the enemy, was killed. Now in regard to such catastrophes, whether it is right to blame or pardon the sufferers is by no means a safe matter on which to pronounce an opinion; because it has happened to several men, who have been perfectly correct in all their actions, to fall into these misfortunes, equally with those who do not scruple to transgress principles of right confirmed by the consent of mankind. We should not however idly refrain from pronouncing an opinion: but should blame or condone this or that general, after a review of the necessities of the moment and the circumstances of the case. Fall of Archidamus, B. C. 226-225. And my observatio
Rome and Carthage Continue to Covet Sardinia and Sicily It appears to me not to be alien to my general Sardinia reduced by T. Manlius Torquatus, B. C. 215. Marcellus took Leontini, B. C. 214 (autumn). Livy, 24, 30. purpose, and the plan which I originally laid down, to recall the attention of my readers to the magnitude of the events, and the persistency of purpose displayed by the two States of Rome and Carthage. For who could think it otherwise than remarkable that these two powers, while en
our astonishment. Marcus Valerius Laevinus commands a fleet off Greece, B. C. 215-214. Livy, 24, 10.
Publius Sulpicius Galba Cos. (B. C. 211.) sent to Macedonia. Livy, 26, 22; 27, 31.
Appius Claudius Pulcher, Praetor, sent to Sicily, B. C. 215. Livy, 23, 31,
Pro-praetor, B. C. 214. Livy 24, 33. The Romans had two
complete armies under the two Consuls on active service in Italy; two in Iberia in which
Gnaeus Cornelius commanded the land, Publius Cornelius the naval forces; and