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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 26 26 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 11 11 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 28-30 (ed. Frank Gardener Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 26-27 (ed. Frank Gardner Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 21-22 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 21-22 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 219 BC or search for 219 BC in all documents.

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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Androni'cus, Li'vius the earliest Roman poet, as far as poetical literature is concerned; for whatever popular poetry there may have existed at Rome, its poetical literature begins with this writer. (Quint. Inst. 10.2.7.) He was a Greek and probably a native of Tarentum, and was made prisoner by the Romans during their wars in southern Italy. He then became the slave of M. Livius Salinator, perhaps the same who was consul in B. C. 219, and again in B. C. 207. Andronicus instructed the children of his master, but was afterwards restored to freedom, and received from his patron the Roman name Livius. (Hieron. in Euseb. Chron. ad Ol. 148.) Andronicus is said to have died in B. C. 221, and cannot have lived beyond B. C. 214. (Osann, Anal. Crit. p. 28.) Dramatic works During his stay at Rome, Andronicus made himself a perfect master of the Latin language, and appears to have exerted himself chiefly in creating a taste for regular dramatic representations. His first drama was acted in B
Archa'gathus (*)Arxa/gaqos), a Peloponnesian the son of Lysanias, who settled at Rome as a practitioner of medicine, B. C. 219, and, according to Cassius Hemina (as quoted by Pliny, Plin. Nat. 29.6), was the first person who made it a distinct profession in that city. He was received in the first instance with great respect, the "Jus Quiritium" was given him, and a shop was bought for him at the public expense ; but his practice was observed to be so severe, that he soon excited the dislike of the people at large, and produced a complete disgust to the profession generally. The practice of Archagathus seems to have been almost exclusively surgical, and to have consisted, in a great measure, in the use of the knife and powerful caustic applications. (Bostock, Hist. of Med.) [W.A.
Ca'varus (*Kau/aros), the last king of that portion of the Gauls which settled in Thrace and for many years exacted an annual tribute from Byzantium. It was chiefly by his mediation that Prusias I. and the Rhodians were induced to make peace with Byzantium in B. C. 219. He was ultimately slain in battle against the Thracians, who defeated and utterly destroyed all the Gauls in their country. (Plb. 4.46, 52.) Polybius calls him " a royal-hearted and magnanimous man" (*Basiliko\s th=| fu/sei kai\ megalo/frwn), and says that he gave great protection to merchants sailing to the Euxine; he adds, however, that he was spoilt by the flattery of Sostratus of Chalcedon. (Plb. 8.24, and apud Athen. vi. p. 252d.) " Cavarus" was perhaps rather a national name than one peculiar to the individual, the Cavari having been a tribe of some consequence which dwelt on the eastern bank of the Rhone, between Avignion and Valence. (Strab. iv. p.186; Dalechamp, ad Athen. l.c.) [E.
Cleo'menes 2. Son of Cleombrotus II., and uncle and guardian of Agesipolis III., B. C. 219. (Plb. 4.35.12; AGESIPOLIS III., CLEOMBROTUS II.) [P.S]
Cno'pias (*Knwpi/as), of Alorus, an officer who, having seen some active service under Demetrius II. and Antigonus Doson, was one of those employed by Agathocles and Sosibius, ministers of Ptolemy IV. (Philopator) to superintend the provision of arms and the choice and training of the troops when Egypt was threatened with war by Antiochus the Great in B. C. 219. Cnopias is said by Polybius to have performed the duty entrusted to him with ability and zeal. (5.63-65.) [E.
ll. ch. 8.) He afterwards entered into alliance with Antigonus Doson, king of Macedonia, and assisted him in the war against Cleomenes. (Plb. 2.65, 3.16.) Thinking that he had thus secured the powerful support of Macedonia, and that the Romans were too much occupied with the Gallic wars, and the danger impending from Hannibal, to punish his breach of faith, he ventured on many acts of piratical hostility. The Romans, however, immediately sent the consul L. Aemilius Paullus over to Illyria (B. C. 219), who quickly reduced all his strongholds, took Pharos itself, and obliged Demetrius to fly for refuge to Philip, king of Macedonia. (Plb. 3.16, 18, 19; Appian, App. Ill. 8; Zonar. 8.20.) At the court of this prince he spent the remainder of his life, and became his chief adviser. The Romans in vain sent an embassy to the Macedonian king to demand his surrender (Liv. 22.33); and it was at his instigation that Philip determined, after the battle of Thrasymene, to conclude an alliance with H
, not against Messenia only, but also against the Epeirots, Achaeans, Acarnanians, and Macedonians. In the next year, B. C. 220, Dorimachus invaded the Peloponnesus with Scopas, and defeated Aratus, at Caphyae. [See p. 255a.] He took part also in the operations in which the Aetolians were joined by Scerdiläidas, the Illyrian,--the capture and burning of Cynaetha, in Arcadia, and the baffled attempt on Cleitor,--and he was one of the leaders of the unsuccessful expedition against Aegeira in B. C. 219. In the autumn of the same year, being chosen general of the Aetolians, he ravaged Epeirus, and destroyed the temple at Dodona. In B. C. 218 he invaded Thessaly, in the hope of drawing Philip away from the siege of Palus, in Cephallenia, which he was indeed obliged to relinquish, in consequence of the treachery of Leontius, but he took advantage of the absence of Dorimachus to make an incursion into Aetolia, advancing to Thermum, the capital city, and plundering it. Dorimachus is mentioned
Eche'crates (*)Exekra/ths). 1. A Thessalian, was one of those whom the ministers of Ptolemy Philopator, when they were preparing for war with Antiochus the Great in B. C. 219, employed in the levying of troops and their arrangement into separate companies. He was entrusted with the command of the Greek forces in Ptolemyi's pay, and of all the mercenary cavalry, and did good service in the war, especially at the battle of Raphia in B. C. 217. (Plb. 5.63, 65, 82, 85
Epe'ratus (*)Eph/ratos), of Pharae in Achaia, was elected general of the Achaeans in B. C. 219, by the intrigues of Apelles, the adviser of Philip V. of Macedonia, in opposition to Timoxenus, who was supported by Aratus. Eperatus was held universally in low estimation, and was in fact totally unfit for his office, on which he entered in B. C. 218, so that, when his year had expired, he left numerous difficulties to Aratus, who succeeded him. (Plb. 4.82, 5.1, 5, 30, 91; Plut. Arat. 48.) [E.
Euri'pidas or EURI'PIDES (*Eu)ri/pidas, *eu)ripi/dhs), an Aetolian, who, when his countrymen, with the help of Scerdilaidas the Illyrian, had gained possession of Cynaetha, in Arcadia (B. C. 220), was at first appointed governor of the town; but the Aetolians soon after set fire to it, fearing the arrival of the Macedonian succours for which Aratus had applied. In the next year, B. C. 219, being sent as general to the Eleans, then allied with Aetolia, he ravaged the lands of Dyme, Pharae, and Tritaea, defeated Miccus, the lieutenant-general of the Achaeans, and seized an ancient stronghold, named Teichos, near Cape Araxus, whence he infested the enemy's territory more effectually. In the winter of the same year he advanced from Psophis, in Arcadia, where he had his head-quarters, to invade Sicyonia, having with him a body of 2200 foot and 100 horse. During the night he passed the encampment of the Macedonians, in the Phliasian territory, without being aware of their vicinity; on disc
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