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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 9 9 Browse Search
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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Calati'nus, A. Ati'lius a distinguished Roman general in the first Punic war, who was twice consul and once dictator. His first consulship falls in B. C. 258, when he obtained Sicily as his province, according to Polybius (1.24), together with his colleague C. Sulpicius Paterculus but according to other authorities alone, to conduct the war against the Carthaginians. He first took the town of Hippana, and afterwards the strongly fortified Myttistratum, which he laid in ashes. (Zonar. 8.11, where he is erroneously called Latinus instead of Calatinus.) Immediately after he attacked Camarina, but during the siege he fell into an ambush, and would have perished with his army, had it not been for the generous exertions of a tribune who is commonly called Calpurnius Flamma, though his name is not the same in all authorities. (Liv. Epit. 17, 22.60; Plin. Nat. 22.6; Oros. 4.8; Florus, 2.2.13, who erroneously calls Atilius Calatinus dictator ; Aurel. Vict. De Vir. Illustr. 39; Gel. 3.7 ; Fron
s, and has been repeated by Niebuhr (Hist. of Rome, iii. p. 579), who, in a later publication (Lectures on Rom. Hist. i. p. 18, ed. Schmitz) remarks, "The present table which contains the inscription is not the original one, for it is a piece of Greek marble, which was unknown at Rome in the time of Duilius. The original column was struck by lightning in the time of Tiberius, and was faithfully restored by Germanicus." Duilius was further rewarded for this victory, by being permitted, whenever he returned home from a banquet at night, to be accompanied by a torch and a flute-player. One more interesting fact is mentioned in connexion with his consulship, viz. in that year the senate of Rome forbade the interment of dead bodies within the city. (Serv. ad Aen. 11.206.) According to the Capitoline Fasti, Duilius was censor in B. C. 258, and in 231 dictator for the purpose of holding the comitia. Further Information Comp. Liv. Epit. 17; Cic. de Senect. 13, Orat. 45, pro Planc. 25.[L.S]
ption. (Galen, de Hippocr. et Plat. Deer. 7.3, vol. v. p. 602.) He prosecuted his experiments and researches in this branch of medical science with great success, and with such ardour that he is said to have dissected criminals alive. (Cels. de Medic. i. praef. p. 6.) He appears to have died in Asia Minor, as Suidas mentions that he was buried by mount Mycale in Ionia. The exact date of his death is not known, but he probably lived to a good old age, as, according to Eusebius, he was alive B. C. 258, about forty years after the marriage of Antiochus and Stratonice. He had numerous pupils and followers, and a medical school bearing his name continued to exist at Smyrna in Ionia nearly till the time of Strabo, about the beginning of the Christian era. (Strab. 12.8, sub fin.) The following are the names of the most celebrated physicians belonging to the sect founded by him : Apoemantes (Galen, de Venae Sect. adv. Erasistr. 100.2, vol. xi. p. 151), Apollonius Memphites, Apollophanes (Cael
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Florus, C. Aqui'llius M. F. C. N., con sul B. C. 259, the sixth year of the first Punic war. The province assigned to Florus was Sicily, where he watched the movements of Hamilcar during the autumn and winter months, and remained in the island as proconsul until late in the summer of B. C. 258. He was employed in that year in blockading Mytistratum, a strong hill-fort, which, after a stubborn resistance and severe loss to the Romans, submitted at length to the united legions of Florus and his successor in the consulship, A. Atilius Calatinus [CALATINUS]. Florus triumphed " De Poeneis" on the 5th of October, 258. (Liv. Epit. xvii.; Zonar. 8.11; Plb. 1.24; Oros. ], 24; Fast. Triumph.) [W.B.D]
ip (a vessel of seven banks of oars, which had formerly belonged to Pyrrhus), and make his escape in a small boat. He hastened to Carthage, where, it is said, he contrived by an ingenious stratagem to escape the punishlment so often inflicted by the Carthaginians on their unsuccessful generals. (Plb. 1.21-23; Zonar. 8.10, 11; Oros. 4.7; Diod. Exc. Vatic. 23.2; Dio Cass. Frag. Vat. 62; Polyaen. 6.16.5.) He was, nevertheless, deprived of his command, but was soon after (apparently the very next year, 259) again sent out, with a considerable fleet, to the defence of Sardinia, which had been attacked by the Romans under L. Scipio. Here he was gain unfortunate, and, having lost many of his ships, was seized by his own mutinous troops, and put to death. (Plb. 1.24; Oros. 4.8; Zonar. 8.12. Tiere is some discrepancy between these accounts, and it is not clear whether he perished in the year of Scipio's operations in Sardinia, or in the following consulship of Sulpicius Paterculus, B. C. 258.)
f. The war appears to have been terminated by a treaty, by which Berenice, the infant daughter of Magas, was betrothed to Ptolemy Euergetes, the son of Philadelphus. (Paus. 1.7.3; Polyaen. 2.28; Just. 26.3.) The chronology of these events is very uncertain; but it seems clear that a considerable interval of peace followed, during which Magas abandoned himself, as he had previously done, to indolence and luxury, and grew in consequence so enormously fat as to cause his death by suffocation, B. C. 258. (Agatharch. apud Atlhen. l.c.) From a passage in the comic writer Philemon cited by Plutarch (De Ira cohib. 9), it appears that Magas had the character of being very illiterate; but the anecdote there related confirms the impression of his being a man of a mild and gentle character, which the tranquillity of his long reign is calculated to convey. The few particulars known concerning him will be found collected and discussed by the Abbé Belley in the Hist. de l'Acad. des Inscr. vol. xxxvi
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Pate'rculus, C. Sulpi'cius consul B. C. 258 with A. Atilius Calatinus in the first Punic war. (Pol. 1.24.) He obtained Sicily as his province, together with his colleague Atilius, but the latter took the chief management of the war, and is therefore spoken of by some writers as the sole commander in Sicily. Paterculus nevertheless obtained a triumph on his return to Rome, as we learn from the triumphal Fasti. The history of the consulship of Paterculus and his colleague is given under CALATINUS.
Sci'pio 7. L. Cornelius Scipio, also son of No. 5, was consul in B. C. 2.59, with C. Aquillius Florus. He drove the Carthaginians out of Sardinia and Corsica, defeating Hanno, the Carthaginian commander, and obtained a triumph in consequence. The epitaph on his tomb records that " he took Corsica and the city of Aleria." In the Fasti he appears as censor in B. C. 258, with C. Duilius, and his epitaph calls him " Consul, Censor, Aedilis." (Liv. Ep. 17; Oros. 4.7; Eutrop. 2.20; Flor. 2.2; Zonar. 8.11; V. Max. 5.1.2; Orelli, Inscr. No. 552.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Theodo'rus CYRENAICUS (search)
ad also of his going to Corinth with a number of his disciples (ibid.) : but this was perhaps only a transient visit during his residence at Athens. He returned at length to Cyrene, and lived there, says Diogenes Laertius (2.103), with Marius. This Roman name is very questionable ; and Grantmesnil (apud Menag. Obs. in Diog. Laert. l.c.) not improbably conjectures that we should read Magas, who was stepson of Ptolemy the son of Lagus, and ruled over Cyrene for fifty years (from B. C. 308 to B. C. 258), either as viceroy or king. The account of Laertius leads to the inference that Theodore ended his days at Cyrene. Athenaeus (xiii. p. 611a) states that he died a violent death, but this is probably only a repetition of the erroneous statement of Amphicrates already noticed. Various characteristic anecdotes of Theodore are preserved by the ancients (especially by Laertius, 2.97-103, 116; Plutarch, De Animi Tranguill. Opp. vol. vii. p. 829, De Exsilio, Opp. vol. viii. p. 391, ed. Reiske; V