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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 14 14 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 1 1 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 263 BC or search for 263 BC in all documents.

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rprised to hear of his declaring that for the sake of philosophy he would dig and undergo all possible labour, of his taking notes from Zeno's lectures on bones and pieces of earthenware when he was too poor to buy paper, and of the quaint penitence with which he reviled himself for his small progress in philosophy, by calling himself an old man "possessed indeed of grey hairs, but not of a mind." For this vigour and zeal in the pursuit, he was styled a second Hercules; and when Zeno died, B. C. 263, Cleanthes succeeded him in his school. This event was fortunate for the preservation of the Stoical doctrines, for though Cleanthes was not endowed with the sagacity necessary to rectify and develop his master's system, yet his stern morality and his devotion to Zeno induced him to keep it free from all foreign corruptions. His poverty was relieved by a present of 3000 minas from Antigonus, and he died at the age of eighty. The story of his death is characteristic. His physician recommend
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Crassus, Octaci'lius 1. M'. Octacilius Crassus, was consul in B. C. 263 with M'. Valerius Maximus, and crossed with a numerous army over to Sicily. After having induced many of the Sicilian towns to surrender, the consuls advanced against Hiero of Syracuse. The king, in compliance with the desire of his people, concluded a peace, which the Romans gladly accepted, and in which he gave up to them the towns they had taken, delivered up the Roman prisoners, and paid a contribution of 200 talents. He thus became the ally of Rome. In B. C. 246 Crassus was consul a second time with M. Fabius Licinus, and carried on the war against the Carthaginians, though nothing of any consequence seems to have been accomplished. (Plb. 1.16 &c.; Zonar. 8.9 ; Eutrop. 2.10; Oros. 4.7; Gellius, 10.6.)
Eu'menes I. (*Eu)me/nhs) I., king, or rather ruler, of PERGAMUS. He was the son of Eumenes, brother of Philetaerus, and succeeded his uncle in the government of Pergamus (B. C. 263), over which he reigned for two-and-twenty years. Soon after his accession lie obtained a victory near Sardis over Antiochus Soter, and was thus enabled to establish his dominion over the provinces in the neighbourhood of his capital; but no further particulars of his reign are recorded. (Strab. xiii. p.624; Clinton, F. H. iii. p. 40(1.) According to Athenaeus (x. p. 445d.), his death was occasioned by a fit of drunkenness. He was succeeded by his cousin Attalus, also a nephew of Philetaerus. It appears to be to this Eumenes (though styled by mistake king of Bithynia) that Justin (27.3) ascribes, without doubt erroneously, the great victory over the Gauls, which was in fact gained by his successor Attalus. [ATTALUS I., vol. i. p. 410a.] [E.H.
Glaucon (*Glau/kwn), an Athenian mentioned by Teles (ap. Stob. Floril. vol. ii. p. 82. ed Gaisf.), who appears to have borne a distinguished part in the last struggle of the Athenians against Antigonus Gonatas, known by the name of the Chremonidean war, B. C. 263. After its termination he fled, together with Chremonides, to the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus, where he was received with great honour, and rose to a high place in the king's confidence. Droysen (Hellenism. vol. ii. p. 206) supposes him to be the same Glaucon that is mentioned by Pythermus (apud Athen. ii. p. 44) as a waterdrinker, and who is there called one of the tyrants of the Peiraeeus (e)n toi=s *Peiraiw=s turanneu/ousi) ; but this expression is understood by Thirlwall, with more probability, to refer to the thirty tyrants of B. C. 404. (Thirlwall's Greece, vol. viii. p. 92 not.) [E.H.
ibal 4. A Carthaginian general, who happened to be stationed with a fleet at Lipara, when Hieron, after gaining a great victory over the Mamertines, was preparing to follow up his advantage, and besiege Messana itself. The Carthaginians were at this time hostile to the Mamertines, and, in name at least, friendly to Hieron; but Hannibal was alarmed at the prospect of the latter obtaining so important an accession of power; he therefore hastened to the camp of Hieron, and induced him to grant terms to the Mamertines, while he himself succeeded in introducing a Carthaginian garrison into the city of MAessana. (Diod. Exc. Hoeschcl. 22.15. p. 500.) These events must have occurred in 270 B. C. (See Droysen, Hellenismus, vol. ii. p. 268, not.) It may probably have been this same Hannibal who is mentioned by Diodorus (Exc. Hoeschel. 23.5) as arriving at Xiphonias with a naval force to the support of Hieron, but too late to prevent that prince from concluding peace with the Romans, B. C. 263.
ar the Syracusan camp, and Hieron gave him battle the next day, but met with a partial defeat ; and, alarmed at the aspect of affairs, and mistrusting the faith of his allies, suddenly withdrew with all his forces to Syracuse. Thither, after some interval, Claudius followed him, and ravaged the open country up to the very walls, but was unable to effect any thing against the city itself, and was compelled by the breaking out of a pestilential disorder in his army to retreat. The next year (B. C. 263) hostilities were renewed by the Romans, and the consuls, Otacilius and Valerius, not only laid waste the Syracusan territory, but took many of their smaller and dependent towns; and Hieron, finding himself unable to cope single-handed with the Roman power, and seeing little hope of assistance from Carthage, concluded a peace with Rome. The terms of the treaty were on the whole sufficiently favourable; Hieron retained possession of the whole south-east of Sicily. and the eastern side of t
Ly'cinus (*Lu/kinos), an Italian Greek, an exile from his native city, who entered the service of Antigonus Gonatas, and was appointed by him to command the garrison, which he left in possession of Athens, after the termination of the Chremonidean war, B. C. 263. (Teles, ap. Stobaeum, Floril. ii. p. 82, ed. Gaisf.; Droysen, Hellenism. vol. ii. pp. 206, 222.) Niebuhr conjectures, plausibly enough, that Lycinus was a native of Tarentum, and had been compelled to fly from that city on its conquest by the Romans. (Niebuhr, Kleine Schrift p. 461.) [E.H.
Messalla *messa/las, a cognomen of the Gens Valeria at Rome, was originally assumed by M. Valerius Maximus [No. 1] after his relief of Messana in Sicily from blockade by the Carthaginians in the second year of the first Punic war, B. C. 263. (Macr. 1.6; Sen. Brev. Vit. 13.) For the antiquity of the Messalla branch of the Valerian gens see Tibullus (Carm. 1.28; comp. Dionys. A. R. 4.67; Rutil. Iter. 1.169; Sidon. Apoll. Ep. 1.9). They appear for the first time on the consular Fasti in B. C. 263B. C. 263, and for the last in A. D. 506 ; and, during this period of nearly eight centuries, they held twenty-two consulships and three censorships. (Sidon. Apoll. Carm. 9.302; Rutil. l.c.; Symmach. Ep. 7.90.) The cognomen Messalla, frequently written Messala, appears with the agnomens Barbatus, Niger, Rufus, with the nomens Ennodius, Pacatus, Silius, Thrasia Priscus, Vipstanus, and with the praenomens Potitus and Volesus, and was itself originally, and when combined with Corvinus, an agnomen, as M. Va
Messalla 1. M'. VALERIUS MAXIMUS CORVINUS MESSALLA, M. F. M. N., son of M. Valerius Maximus Corvinus, was consul in B. C. 263, the second year of the first Punic war. Sicily was assigned to both the consuls for their province. Their campaign was brilliant: more than sixty of the Sicilian towns acknowleged the supremacy of Rome, and the consuls concluded a peace with Hieron, which lasted the remainder of his long life, and proved equally advantageous to both Syracuse and Rome, [HIERON, No. 2.] Messalla's share in this campaign is inseparable from that of M. Otacilius Crassus [CRASSUS, OTACILIUS, No. 1], his colleague. But that his contemporaries ascribed to Messalla the principal merit of these events appears from his alone triumphing "De Paeneis et Rege Siculorum Hierone" (Fasli).as well as from the cognomen he obtained on relieving Messana from blockade, which, slightly changed in pronunciation (Messana -- Messalla), remained in the Valerian family for nearly eight centuries. A hou
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Otaci'lia Gens sometimes written Octacilia, is first mentioned at the commencement of the first Punic war, when two brothers of this name obtained the consulship, M'. Otacilius Crassus in B. C. 263, and T. Otacilius Crassus in B. C. 261 ; but after this time the Otacilii rarely occur. The only cognomens in this gens are CRASUS and NASO. One or two persons, who were accidentally omitted under Crassus, are given below.
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