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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 9 9 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 6 6 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
27; Plin. Nat. 36.15, s. 24 § 3; Strab. v. p.235; Frontin. De Aquaed. 9.) When the war broke out between Octavianus and M. Antonius, Agrippa was appointed comnander-in-chief of the fleet, B. C. 32. He took Methone in the Peloponnesus, Leucas, Patrae, and Corinth; and in the battle of Actium (B. C. 31) where he commanded, the victory was mainly owing to his skill. On his return to Rome in B. C. 30, Octavianus, now Augustus, rewarded him with a " vexillum caeruleum," or sea-green flag. In B. C. 28, Agrippa became consul for the second time with Augustus, and about this time married Marcella, the niece of Augustus, and the daughter of his sister Octavia. His former wife, Pomponia, the daughter of T. Pomponins Atticus, was either dead or divorced. In the following year, B. C. 27, he was again consul the third time with Augustus. In B. C. 25, Agrippa accompanied Augustus to the war against the Cantabrians. About this time jealousy arose between him and his brother-in-law Marcellus, th
Anaxila'us (*)Anaci/laos), a physician and Pythagorean philosopher, was born at Larissa, but at which city of that name is not certain. He was banished by the Emperor Augustus from Rome and Italy, B. C. 28, on account of his being accused of being a magician (Euseb. Chron. ad Olymp. clxxxviii.), which charge, it appears, originated in his possessing superior skill in natural philosophy, and thus performing by natural means certain wonderful things, which by the ignorant and credulous were ascribed to magic. These tricks are mentioned by St. Irenaeus (1.13.1, p. 60, ed. Paris, 1710) and St. Epiphanius (Adv. Haeres. lib. i. tom. iii. Haer. 14, vol. i. p. 232. ed. Colon. 1682), and several specimens are given by Pliny (Plin. Nat. 19.4, 25.95, 28.49, 32.52, 35.50), which, however, need not be here mentioned, as some are quite incredible, and the others may be easily explained. (Cagnati, Variae Observat. 3.10, p. 213, &c., ed. Rom. 1587.) [W.A.
e in reality mere forms and titles, like the new offices which he created to reward his friends and partisans. Augustus assumed nothing of the outward appearance of a monarch : he retained the simple mode of living of an ordinary citizen, continued his familiar intimacy with his friends, and appeared in public without any pomp or pageantry; a kingly court, in our sense of the word, did not exist at all in the reign of Augustus. His relation to the senate was at first rather undefined : in B. C. 28 he had been made princeps senatus, but in the beginning of the year 24 he was exempted by the senate from all the laws of the state. During the latter years of his life, Augustus seldom attended the meetings of the senate, but formed a sort of privy council, consisting of twenty senators, with whom he discussed the most important political matters. Augustus had no ministers, in our sense of the word; but on state matters, which he did not choose to be discussed in public, he consulted his p
Drusus 8. M. Livius Drusus Libo was probably aedile about B. C. 28, shortly before the completion of the Pantheon, and may be the person who is mentioned by Pliny (Plin. Nat. 36.15. s. 24) as having given games at Rome when the theatre was covered by Valerius, the architect of Ostium. He was consul in B. C. 15. As his name denotes, he was originally a Scribonius Libo, and was adopted by a Livius Drusus. Hence he is supposed to have been adopted by Livius Drusus Claudianus [No. 7], whose name, date, want of male children, and political associations with the party opposed to Caesar, favour the conjecture. He is also supposed to have been the father of the Libo Drusus, or Drusus Libo [No. 10], who conspired against Tiberius. As Pompey the Great would appear from Tacitus (Tac. Ann. 2.27) to have been the proavus of the conspirator, Scribonia his amita, and the young Caesars (Caius and Lucius) his consobrini, Drusus Libo, the father, is supposed to have marrried a granddaughter of Pompey.
before that date, since, although written previously, the honorary epithet might have been inserted here and elsewhere at any time before publication. Again, we gather from the epitome that bk. lix. contained a reference to the law of Augustus, De Maritandis Ordinibus, from which it has been concluded that the book in question must have been written after B. C. 18; but this is by no means certain, since it can be proved that a legislative enactment upon this subject was proposed as early as B. C. 28. Since, however, the obsequies of Drusus were commemorated in bk. cxlii. it is evident, at the very lowest computation, that the task have been spread over seventeen years, and probably occupied a much longer time. We must not omit to notice that Niebuhr takes a very different view of this matter. He is confident that Livy did not begin his labours until he had attained age of fifty (B. C. 9), and that he had not fully accomplished his design at the close of his life. He builds chiefly upon
Augustus remarked, Messalla had now fought as well for him as formerly at Philippi against him. " I have always taken the best and justest side," was Messalla's adroit rejoinder. (Plut. Brut. 53.) At Daphne in Syria, Messalla proved himself an unscrupulous partisan, by dispersing among distant legions and garrisons Antony's gladiators, and finally destroying them, although they had not submitted until life and freedom had been guaranteed them. (D. C. 51.7.) He was proconsul of Aquitaine in B. C. 28-27, and obtained a triumph for his reduction of that province. (Fasti; Dio Cass. liii 12; Appian, App. BC 4.38; Tib. 1.7, 2.1. 33. 2.5. 117, 4.1, 4.8. 5.) Shortly before or immediately after his administration of Aquitaine Messalla held a prefecture in Asia Minor. (Tib. 1.3.) He was deputed by the senate, probably in B. C. 30, to greet Augustus with the title of " Pater Patrine; " and the opening of his address on that occasion is preserved by Suetonius. (Aug. 58; comp. Flor. 4.12.66; Ovid.
. 4.43.) A wooden statue of Hecate, in Aegina. (Paus. 2.20.2.) Several statues ofathletes. (See Sillig, s. v.) Lastly, a striking indication how far Myron's love of variety led him beyond the true limits of art, a drunken old woman, in marble, at Smyrna, which of course, according to Pliny, was inprimis inclyta. (Plin. Nat. 36.5. s. 4.) His Cow was not his only celebrated work of the kind: there were four oxen, which Augustus dedicated in the portico of the temple of Apollo on the Palatine, B. C. 28 (Propert. 2.23. 7); and a calf carrying Victory, derided by Tatian. (Adv. Graec. 54, p. 117, ed. Worth.) He was also an engraver in metals: a celebrated patera of his is mentioned by Martial (6.92). Nothing is known of Myron's life except that, according to Petronius (88), he died in great poverty. He had a son, LYCLUS, who was a distinguished artist. (Besides the usual authorities, Winckelmann, Meyer, Thiersch, Müller, Junius, Sillig,&c., there is an excellent lecture on Myron in Böt
Pomp'nia 3. The daughter of T. Pomponius Atticus. She is also called Caecilia, because her father was adopted by Q. Caecilius, and likewise Attica. She was born in B. C. 51, after Cicero had left Italy for Cilicia. She is frequently mentioned in Cicero's letters to Atticus, and seems at an early age to have given promise of future excellence. She was still quite young when she was married to M. Vipsanius Agrippa. The marriage was negotiated by M. Antony, the triumvir, probably in B. C. 36. She was afterwards suspected of improper intercourse with the grammarian Q. Caecilius Epirota, a freedman of her father, who instructed her. Her subsequent history is not known. Her husband Agrippa married Marcella in B. C. 28, and accordingly she must either have died or been divorced from her husband before that year. Her daughter Vipsania Agrippina married Tiberius, the successor of Augustus. (Cic. Att. 5.19, 6.1, 2, 5, 7.2, et alibi; Corn. Nep. Att. 12 ; Suet. Tib. 7, de Illustr. Gramm. 16.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
of seventy years old, his name appeared along with that of Cicero upon the list of the proscribed, but more fortunate than his friend he succeeded in making his escape, and, after having remained for some time concealed (Appian, B. C. iv 47), in securing the protection of Octavianus. The remainder of his career was passed in tranquillity, and be continued to labour in his favourite studies, although his magnificent library had been destroyed, a loss to him irreparable. His death took place B. C. 28, when he was in his eighty-ninth year (Plin. Nat. 29.4; Hieronym. in Euseb. Chron. Olymp. 188. 1). It is to be observed that M. Terentius Varro, in consequence of his having possessed extensive estates in the vicinity of Reate, is styled Reatinus by Symmachus (Ep. i.), and probably by Sidonius Apollinaris also (Ep. 4.32), a designation which has been very frequently adopted by later writers in order to distinguish him from Varro Atacinus. Works Not only was Varro the most learned of Roma