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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 21 21 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2 2 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 40-42 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. and Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 35-37 (ed. Evan T. Sage, PhD professor of latin and head of the department of classics in the University of Pittsburgh) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 31-34 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh) 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 1 1 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 281 BC or search for 281 BC in all documents.

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Alexander (*)Ale/candros), the son of LYSIMACHUS by an Odrysian woman, whom Polyaenus (6.12) calls Macris. On the murder of his brother Agathocles [see p. 65a] by command of his father in B. C. 284, he fled into Asia with the widow of his brother, and solicited aid of Seleucus. A war ensued in consequence between Seleucus and Lysimachus, which terminated in the defeat and death of the latter, who was slain in battle in B. C. 281, in the plain of Coros in Phrygia. His body was conveyed by his son Alexander to the Chersonesus, and there buried between Cardia and Pactya, where his tomb was remaining in the time of Pausanias. (1.10.4, 5; Appian, App. Syr. 64
ion to the throne for her own children, was jealous of her step-son Agathocles, who was married to her half-sister Lysandra, the daughter of Ptolemy I. and Eurydice. Through the intrigues of Arsinoe, Agathocles was eventually put to death in B. C. 284. [AGATHOCLES, p. 65a.] This crime, however, led to the death of Lysimachus; for Lysandra fled with her children to Seleucus in Asia, who was glad of the pretext to march against Lysimachus. In the war which followed, Lysimachus lost his life (B. C. 281) ; and after the death of her husband, Arsinoe first fled to Ephesus, to which Lysimachus had given the name of Arsinoe in honour of her (Steph. Byz. s. v. *)/Efesos), and from thence (Polyaen. 8.57) to Cassandreia in Macedonia, where she shut herself up with her sons by Lysimachus. Seleucus had seized Macedonia after the death of Lysimachus, but he was assassinated, after a reign of a few months, by Ptolemy Ceraunus, the half-brother of Arsinoe, who had now obtained the throne of Macedo
Ba'rbula 2. L. Aemilius Barbula, Q. F. Q. N., son of No. 1, was consul in B. C. 281. The Tarentines had rejected with the vilest insult the terms of peace which had been offered by Postumius, the Roman ambassador; but as the republic had both the Etruscans and Samnites to contend with, it was unwilling to come to a rupture with the Tarentines, and accordingly sent the consul Barbula towards Tarentum with instructions to offer the same terms of peace as Postumius had, but if they were again rejected to make war against the city. The Tarentines, however, adhered to their iormer resolution; but as they were unable to deiend themselves against the Romans, they invited Pyrrhus to their assistance. As soon as Barbula became acquainted with their determination, he prosecuted the war with the utmost vigour, beat the Tarentines in the open field, and took several of their towns. Alarmed at his progress, and trusting to his clemency, as he had treated the peisoners kindly and dismissed some w
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
De'cius Jube'llius a Campanian, and commander of the Campanian legion which the Romans stationed at Rhegium in B. C. 281 for the protection of the place. Decius and his troops, envious of the happiness which the inhabitants of Rhegium enjoyed, and remembering the impunity with which the Mamertines had carried out their disgraceful scheme, formed a most diabolical plan. During the celebration of a festival, while all the citizens were feasting in public, Decius and his soldiers attacked them; the men were massacred and driven into exile, while the soldiers took the women to themselves. Decius put himself at the head of the city, acted as tyrannus perfectly independent of Rome, and formed connexions with the Mamertines in Sicily. He at first had endeavoured to palliate his crime by asserting that the Rhegines intended to betray the Roman garrison to Pyrrhus. During the war with Pyrrhus the Romans had no time to look after and punish the miscreants at Rhegium, and Decius for some years
are mentioned among the pupils of Theophrastus. (Athen. 4.128.) After his return to Samos, he obtained the tyranny, though it is unknown by what means and how long he maintained himself in that position. He must, however, have survived the year B. C. 281, as in one of his works (ap. Plin. Nat. 8.40) he mentioned an occurrence which belongs to that year. Works Duris was the author of a considerable number of works, most of which were of an historical nature, but none of them has come down to hers simply call it, i(stori/ai. It commenced with the death of the three princes, Amyntas, the father of Philip of Macedonia, Agesipolis of Sparta, and Jason of Pherae, that is, with the year B. C. 370, and carried the history down at least to B. C. 281, so that it embraced a period of at least 89 years. The number of books of which it consisted is not known, though their number seems to have amounted to about 28. Some ancient writers speak of a work of Duris entitled *Makedonika/, and the que
Heracleitus (*(Hra/kleitos), Heraclitus, a native of Cyme, in Aeolia, was appointed by Arsinoe, the wife of Lysimachus, to the government of Heraclea, when that city was given to her by her husband. By his arbitrary and tyrannical administration he inflicted a great injury on the prosperity of Heraclea, and alienated the minds of the citizens, so that after the death of Lysimachus (B. C. 281) they rose in revolt against him, and, uniting with the mercenaries under his command, took Heracleitus prisoner, and re-established the liberty of their city. (Memnon, apud Phot. p. 225a. b. ed. Bekker.) In the second passage where he is mentioned by Memnon, his name is written Heracleides: it is uncertain which is the correct form. [E.H.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
aining various other victories over the Lucanians, Bruttians, and Sannites, and taking several of their towns; and he obtained so much booty, that, after giving up a large portion to the soldiers, and returning to the citizens the tribute which they had paid the year before, he brought into the treasury after his triumph more than 400 talents. (V. Max. 1.8.6, Plin. Nat. 34.6, s. 15; Dionys. Exc. Leg. pp. 2344, 2355, ed. Reiske; Liv. Epit. 12; Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, vol. iii. p. 437.) In B. C. 281 Pyrrhus landed at Tarentum, and in the following year, B. C. 280, the consul P. Valerins Laevinus was sent against him. Fabricius probably served under him as legate, and was thus present at the unfortunate battle of Heracleia, on the Siris, where the Romans were defeated by Pyrrhus. The subsequent history of the campaign belongs to the life of Pyrrhus [PYRRHUS]; and it is only necessary to state here, that after the king of Epeirus had advanced almost up to the gates of Rome, he found it
, daughter of Ptolemy Soter and Eurydice, the daughter of Antipater. She was married first to Alexander, the son of Cassander, king of Macedonia, and after his death to Agathocles, the son of Lysimachus. (Dexippus, apud Syncell. p. 265; Euseb. Arm. p. 155; Paus. 1.9.6; Plut. Demsetr. 31.) By this second marriage (which took place, according to Pausanias, after the return of Lysimachus from his expedition against the Getae, B. C. 291) she had several children, with whom she fled to Asia after the murder of her husband, at the instigation of Arsinoe [AGATHOCLES], and besought assistance from Seleucus. The latter in consequence marched against Lysiimachus, who was defeated and slain in battle B. C. 281. From an expression of Pausanias, it appears that Lysandra must at this time have accompanied Seleucus, and was possessed of much influence, but in the confusion that followed the death of Seleucus a few months after we hear no more either of her or her children. (Paus. 1.10.3-5.) [E.H.B]
Lysi'machus 3. Son of Lysimachus, king of Thrace (see below), by Arsinoe, daughter of Ptolemy Soter. After the death of his father (B. C. 281), he fled with his mother and younger brother, Philip, to Cassandria, where they remained for some time in safety, until Ptolemy Ceraunus, who had established himself upon the throne of Macedonia, decoyed Arsinoie and her two sons into his power, by promising to marry the former, and adopt the two young men. But as soon as they met their treacherous uncle, both Lysimachus and Philip were instantly seized and put to death, in the very arms of their mother. Lysimachus was at the time 16 years old; his brother three years younger; and both were remarkable for their beauty. (Just. 24.2, 3; Memnon, 100.14.)
e court of Seleucus, who, notwithstanding his advanced age, hastened to raise an army, and invade the dominions of Lysimachus. The latter also was not slow to cross into Asia, and endeavour to check the rising spirit of disaffection. The two monarchs--the last survivors of the warriors and companions of Alexander, and both of them above seventy years of age--met in the plain of Corus (Corupedion); and in the battle that ensued Lysimachus fell by the hand of Malacon, a native of Heracleia (B. C. 281). His body was given up to his son, Alexander, and interred by him at Lysimachia. (Memnon, 100.8; Just. 17.1.2; App. Syr. 62; Paus. 1.10. §§ 4, 5; Oros. 3.23; Euseb. Arm. p. 156.) The age of Lysimachus at the time of his death is variously stated: Hieronymus of Cardia, probably the best authority, affirms that he was in his 80th year (apud Lucian. Macrob. 11). Justin, on the contrary, makes him 74; and Appian (l.c.) only 70 years old; but the last computation is certainly below the truth
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