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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 15 15 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 11 11 Browse Search
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Antipater (*)Anti/patros), second son of CASSANDER, king of Macedonia, by Thessalonica, sister of Alexander the Great. Soon after the death of Cassander (B. C. 296), his eldest son Philip also died of consumption (Paus. 9.7; Plut. Demetr. 905, f.), and great dissensions ensued between Antipater and his younger brother Alexander for the government. Antipater, believing that Alexander was favoured by his mother, put her to death. The younger brother upon this applied for aid at once to Pyrrhus of Epeirus and Demetrius Poliorcetes. Pyrrhus arrived first, and, exacting from Alexander a considerable portion of Macedonia as his reward, obliged Antipater to fly before him. According to Plutarch, Lysimachus, king of Thrace, Antipater's father-in-law, attempted to dissuade Pyrrhus from further hostilities by a forged letter purporting to come from Ptolemy Soter. The forgery was detected, but Pyrrhus seems notwithstanding to have withdrawn after settling matters between the brothers; soon afte
ied to Rome by the Sabine settlers. She is frequently mentioned by the Roman poets as the companion of Mars, or even as his sister or his wife. Virgil describes her as armed with a bloody scourge. (Verg. A. 8.703; Lucan, Phars. 7.569; Horat. Sat. 2.3. 223.) The main object for which Bellena was worshipped and invoked, was to grant a warlike spirit and enthusiasm which no enemy could resist; and it was for this reason, for she had been worshipped at Rome from early times (Liv. 8.9), that in B. C. 296, during the war against the Samnites, Appius Claudius the Blind vowed the first temple of Bellona, which was accordingly erected in the Campus Martins close by the Circus Flaminius. (Liv. 10.19; Ov. Fast. 6.201, &c.) This temple subsequently became of great political importance, for in it the senate assembled to give audience to foreign ambassadors, whom it was not thought proper to admit into the city, to generals who returned from a campaign for which they claimed the honour of a triumph
loponnesus. He was a disciple of Aristotle (Cic. de Leg. 3.6), and a friend of Theophrastus, to whom he dedicated some of his writings. Most of Aristotle's disciples are mentioned also among those of Plato, but as this is not the case with Dicaearchus, Osann (Beiträge zur Griech. u. Röm. Lit. ii. p. 1, &c.) justly infers that Dicaearchus was one of Aristotle's younger disciples. From some allusions which we meet with in the fragments of his works, we must conclude that he survived the year B. C. 296, and that he died about B. C. 285. Dicaearchus was highly esteemed by the ancients as a philosopher and as a man of most extensive information upon a great variety of things. (Cic. Tusc. 1.18, de Off. 2.5; Varro, de Re Rust. 1.2.) Works Dicaearchus' works, which were very numerous, are frequently referred to, and many fragments of them are still extant, which shew that their loss is one of the most severe in Greek literature. His works were partly geographical, partly political or histo
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ad now drawn within the enmity of Rome. According to Livy (9.42), Flamma was prosperous in the field, took several towns by storm, and made himself very popular with the soldiers by his liberal distribution of the booty. These successes are, however, very problematical; since the name of Flamma does not appear in the Fasti Triumphales, and one of the annalists, Piso, omitted this consulship altogether (Liv. 9.44). But there is no reason to doubt that Flamma was consul with App. Claudius in B. C. 296. It was the most critical period of the second Samnite war. Flamma was at first stationed on the frontiers of Samnium, but on the appearance of a Samnite army in the heart of Etruria, he was ordered to the relief of his colleague. Claudius at first resented, but on the representation of his principal officers, finally ac cepted the aid of Flamma. There was, however, no harmony between them; and as soon as their joint armies had repelled the enemy, Flamma returned by forced marches into Cam
Gelon 3. A native of Epeirus, in the service of Neoptolemus II., king of that country, who took occasion to form a plot against the life of Pyrrhus, when that prince and Neoptolemus had met to perform a solemn sacrifice. The conspiracy was, however, discovered, and Neoptolemus himself assassinated by his rival, B. C. 296. (Plut. Pyrrh. 5.) [E.H.B]
La'chares (*Laxa/rhs), an Athenian, was one of the most influential demagogues in his native city, after the democracy had been re-established by Demetrius Poliorcetes. He was afterwards secretly gained over by Cassander, who incited him to aim at the acquisition of the tyranny, hoping to be able through his means to rule Athens. (Paus. 1.25.7.) He does not seem, however, to have been able to effect this purpose until Athens was besieged by Demetrius (B. C. 296), when he took advantage of the excitement of the popular mind to expel Demochares, the leader of the opposite party, and establish himself as undisputed master of the city. We know but little either of the intrigues by which he raised himself to power or of his proceedings afterwards; but he is described in general terms by Pausanias, as "of all tyrants the most inhuman towards men, and the most sacrilegious towards the gods." He plundered the temples, and especially the Parthenon, of all their most valuable treasures, strip
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ant, and his pretensions to the throne were passed over in favour of Aeacides. It was not till B. C. 302 that the Epeirots, taking advantage of the absence of Pyrrhus, the son of Aeacides, rose in insurrection against him, and set up Neoptolemus in his stead. The latter reigned for the dangers space of six years without opposition, but effectually alienated the minds of his subjects, by his harsh and tyrannical rule. He thus paved the way for the return of Pyrrhus, who landed in Epeirus in B. C. 296, at the head of a force furnished him by Ptolemy, king of Egypt. Neoptolemus, alarmed at the disaffection of his subjects, consented to a compromise, and it was agreed that the two rivals should share the sovereignty between them. But such an arrangement could not last long; at a solemn festival, where the two kings and all the chief nobles of the land were assembled, Neoptolemus had formed the design to rid himself of his rival by poison; but the plot was discovered by Pyrrhus, who in ret
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Q. Ogu'lnius and Cn. Ogu'lnius (search)
r of the pontiffs was increased from four to eight, and that of the augurs from four to nine, and which enacted that four of the pontiffs and five of the augurs should be taken from the plebs. (Liv. 10.6-9.) Besides these eight pontiffs there was the pontifex maximus, who is generally not included when the number of pontiffs is spoken of. The pontifex maximus continued to be a patrician down to B. C. 254, when Tib. Coruncanius was the first plebeian who was invested with this dignity. In B. C. 296 Q. and Cn. Ogulnii were curule aediles. They prosecuted several persons for violating the usury laws; and with the money accruing from the fines inflicted in consequence they executed many public works (Liv. 10.23). The name of Cn. Ogulnius does not occur again after this year. In B. C. 294 Q. Ogulnius was sent at the head of an embassy to Epidaurus, in order to fetch Aesculapiu to Rome, that the plague might be stayed which had been raging in the city for more than two years. The legend
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Paetus, Ae'lius 2. P. Aelius Paetus, plebeian aedile B. C. 296. (Liv. 10.23.)
he atmosphere. (Paus. 5.11.5.) The base was repaired by Aristocles the younger, about B. C. 397 (Böckh, Corp. Inscr. vol. i. p. 237 : Böckh suggests that, as Aristcles was the son of Cleoetas, who appears to have been an assistant of Pheidias in his great works, this artist's family may have been the guardians of the statue, as the descendants of Pheidias himself were of the Zeus at Olympia.) The statue was finally robbed of its gold by Lachares, in the time of Demetrius Poliorcetes, about B. C. 296. (Paus 1.25.7.) Pausanias, however, speaks of the statue as if the gold were still upon it; possibly the plundered gold may have been replaced by gilding. We possess numerous statues of Athena, most of which are no doubt imitated from that in the Parthenon, and from the two other statues in the Acropolis. Böttiger has endeavoured to distinguish the existing copies of these three great works (Andeutungen, pp. 90-92). That which is believed to be the nearest copy of the Athena of the Parthen
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