d by Justinian to complete the church of St. Sophia at Constantinople, now a Mohammedan mosque.
Twenty-nine great military roads centered at Rome, some of them being carried to the extreme limits of the Empire, which was divided into 11 regions, 113 provinces, traversed by 372 great roads which, according to the Itinerary of Antoninus, had a length of 52,964 Roman miles.
The first of these great roads was the Appian Way, constructed by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus, 442 A. U. C. (311 B. C.), who is not to be confounded with the decemvir Appius Claudius, 449 B. C., concerned in the tragedy of Virginia, the Roman maiden.
The stones were hewn and carefully fitted.
It was never excelled by the Romans.
Appius constructed it to Capua, 142 miles, and his successors to Brundusium (now Brindisi), another 218 miles. Strabo (d. A. D. 24) gives it the preeminence.
It is still entire in many places, though more than twenty centuries have elapsed since its construction It was properly
Biremes, where the rowers sat in 2 ranks, on different levels, were probably invented by the Phoenicians, and were known to the Assyrians in the time of Sennacherib.
One is represented in the palace of that monarch at Kouyunjik.
Triremes were invented by the Corinthians about 750 B. C.
Fig 5000 is a view of a Roman biremis, or two-banked galley.
The Romans, by the account of Livy, first became aware of the importance of a fleet during the second Samnite war, B. C. 311.
As their colonies spread, especially when the Pontian Islands were embraced in their bounds, the necessity grew.
In the time of the first Punic war the Romans became a maritime power, clearly foreseeing that in default of a navy Carthage could not be subdued.
See also Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, p. 783 et seq.
A. D. 1500.
The Great Harry, constructed by Henry VII., was the first ship of the English royal navy.
Previous to this the navy consisted of vessels furn