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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 22 22 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 3 3 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), History of Rome, books 1-10 (ed. Rev. Canon Roberts) 1 1 Browse Search
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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
nder again crossed the Oxus to complete the subjugation of Sogdiana, but was not able to effect it in the year, and accordingly went into winter quarters at Nautaca, a place in the middle of the province. At the beginning of the following year, B. C. 327, he took a mountain fortress, in which Oxyartes, a Bactrian prince, had deposited his wife and daughters. The beauty of Roxana, one of the latter, captivated the conqueror, and he accordingly made her his wife. This marriage with one of his easder of the king. The plot was formed by Hermolaus with a number of the royal pages, and Callisthenes, a pupil of Aristotle, was involved in it. All the conspirators were put to death. Alexander did not leave Bactria till late in the spring of B. C. 327, and crossed the Indus, probably near the modern Attock. He now entered the country of the Penjab, or the Five Rivers. Taxilas, the king of the people immediately east of the Indus, submitted to him, and thus he met with no resistance till he r
Alexi'ppus (*)Ale/cippos), an ancient Greek physician, who is mentioned by Plutarch (Plut. Alex. c. 41) as having received a letter from Alexander himself, to thank him for having cured Peucestas, one of his officers, of an illness probably about B. C. 327. [W.A.
Cleon 4. A SICILIAN, one of the literary Greeks in the train of Alexander the Great, who, according to Curtius, corrupted the profession of good arts by their evil manners. At the banquet, at which the proposal was made to adore Alexander (B. C. 327), Cleon introduced the subject. (Curt. 8.5.8.) Neither Arrian nor Plutarch mentions him; and Arrian (4.10) puts into the mouth of Anaxarchus the same proposal and a similar speech to that which Curtius ascribes to Cleon.
ith separate commands of importance, during the campaigns in Bactria and Sogdiana, and still more during the expedition to India. Thus he was not only charged by Alexander with the care of founding new cities and colonies, with preparing the bridge over the Indus, and with the construction of the fleet on the Acesines, which was to descend that river and the Indus, but was detached on several occasions with a large force for strictly military objects. When Alexander approached the Indus in B. C. 327, Hephaestion was ordered to advance, together with Perdiccas and the Indian king Taxiles, by the direct line down the valley of the Cophen, while the king was engaged in subduing the warlike tribes farther north; and on reaching the Indus, he reduced an important fortress, after a siege of thirty days. Again, after the passage of the Acesines, and the defeat of Porus, the task of subduing the other king of that name was assigned to Hephaestion, a service of which he acquitted himself with
Hermola'us (*(Ermo/laos), son of Sopolis, was one of the Macedonian youths who, according to a custom instituted by Philip, attended Alexander the Great as pages. It was during the residence of the king at Bactra in the spring of B. C. 327, that a circumstance occurred which led him, in conjunction with some of his fellow pages, to form a conspiracy against the life of Alexander. Among the duties of the pages, who were in almost constant attendance on the king's person, was that of accompanying him when hunting, and it was on one of these occasions that he gave offence to the king by slaying a wild boar, without waiting to allow Alexander the first blow. Highly incensed at this breach of discipline, the king ordered him to be chastised with stripes, and further punished by being deprived of his horse. Hermolaus, a lad of high spirit, already verging on manhood, could not brook this indignity : his resentment was inflamed by the exhortations of the philosopher Callisthenes, to whom he
Lentulus 2. L. Cornelius Lentulus, L. F., son of the last (Liv. l.c.), consul in B. C. 327. He commanded an army of observation against the Samnites just before the second Samnite war, B. C. 324. (Liv. 8.22, 23.) He was legate in the Caudine campaign, five years after, and advised the consuls to accept the terms offered by the enemy. (Liv. 9.4.) Next year he was dictator, and he probably was the officer who avenged the disgrace of the Furculae Caudinae. This was indeed disputed (Liv. 9.15); but his descendants at least claimed the honour for him, by assuming the agnomen of Caudinus. [See No. 6.]
idence. Thus we find him making one of the secret council appointed to inquire into the guilt of Philotas; present at the quarrel between Alexander and Cleitus, and attempting in vain to check the fury of the king; keeping watch over Alexander's tent at the time of the conspiracy of the pages; and even venturing to excite his resentment by ridiculing the Persian custom of prostration. (Curt. 6.8.17, 8.1 § 46, 6.22; Arr. Anab. 4.12. §. 3.) Nor were his military services less conspicuous; in B. C. 327 he is mentioned as taking a prominent part in the attack on the hill fort of Chorienes, and was wounded at the same time with Ptolemy and Alexander himself, in the first engagement with the barbarian tribes of the vale of the Choes. On a subsequent occasion he led one division of the army to the attack of one of the strong positions which the Indian mountaineers had occupied: but his most distinguished exploit was in the assault on the city of the Malli, where Alexander's life was only sav
Ophellas (*)Ofe/llas,) king or ruler of Cyrene, was a native of Pella in Macedonia: his father's name was Seilenus. He appears to have accompanied Alexander during his expedition in Asia, but his name is first mentioned as commanding one of the triremes of the fleet of that monarch on the Indus, B. C. 327. (Arrian, lnd. 18.) After the death of the Macedonian king, he followed the foltunes of Ptolemy, by whom he was sent, in B. C. 322, at the head of a considerable army, to take advantage of the civil war which had broken out in the Cyrenaica. [THIMBRON.] This object he successfully accomplished, totally defeated Thimbron and the party that supported him, and established the supremacy of Egypt over Cyrene itself and its dependencies. But shortly after, the civil dissensions having broken out again led Ptolemy himself to repair to Cyrene, which he this time appears to have reduced to complete subjection. (Diod. 18.21; Arrian, apud Phot. p. 70a.) The subsequent proceedings of Ophellas a
safety in a rock fortress in Sogdiana, which was deemed impregnable, but which nevertheless soon fell into the hands of Alexander, who not only treated his captives with respect and attention, but was so charmed with the beauty of Roxana as to design to make her his wife. Oxyartes. on learning these tidings, hastened to make his submission to the conqueror, by whom he was received with the utmost distinction; and celebrated by a magnificent feast the nuptials of his daughter with the king, B. C. 327 (Arr. Anab. 4.18, 19, 20, § 7; Curt. 8.4.21-29; Strab. xi. p.517; Plut. Alex. 47; concerning the discrepancies in these statements see Miitzell, ad Curt. l.c. cand Droysen's Alexander, p. 346). Shortly after we find him successfully interposing to prevail upon Chorienes to surrender his rock fortress; and at a subsequent period he was appointed by Alexander satrap of the province of Paropamisus, or India south of the Caucasus (Arr. Anab. 4.21, 6.15; Curt. 9.8.9; Plut. Alex. 58). In this po
Pantauchus (*Pa/ntauxos). 1. A Macedonian of Alorus, son of Nicolaus, an officer in the service of Alexander, was one of those appointed to the command of a trireme on the descent of the Indus, B. C. 327. (Arrian Ind. 18.) Though this is the only occasion during the wars of that monarch on which his name is mentioned, yet we are told that he had earned a great reputation both for ability as a commander and for his personal strength and prowess. These qualities obtained for him a high place among the generals of Demetrius Poliorcetes, who in B. C. 289 left him with a large force to hold possession of Aetolia against Pyrrhus. On the approach of that monarch, Pantauchus hastened to meet him, and give him battle, when a single combat ensued between the young king and the veteran officer, in which the former was victorious. Pantauchus was carried off the field severely wounded, and his army was totally routed. Whether or not he died of his wounds we know not, but his name is not again m
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