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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 39 39 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 333 BC or search for 333 BC in all documents.

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Agis Iii. the elder son of Archidamus III., was the 20th king of the Eurypontid line. His reign was short, but eventful. He succeeded his father in B. C. 388. In B. C. 333, we find him going with a single trireme to the Persian commanders in the Aegean, Pharnabazus and Autophradates, to request money and an armament for carrying on hostile operations against Alexander in Greece. They gave him 30 talents and 10 triremes. The news of the battle of Issus, however, put a check upon their plans. He sent the galleys to his brother Agesilaus, with instructions to sail with them to Crete, that he might secure that island for the Spartan interest. In this he seems in a great measure to have succeeded. Two years afterwards (B. C. 331), the Greek states which were leagued together against Alexander, seized the opportunity of the disaster of Zopyrion and the revolt of the Thracians, to declare war against Macedonia. Agis was invested with the command, and with the Lacedaemonian troops, and a bod
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
e country ; but this advice was not followed, and the Persians were defeated. Memnon was the ablest general that Darius had, and his death in the following year (B. C. 333) relieved Alexander from a formidable opponent. After the capture of Halicarnassus, Memnon had collected a powerful fleet, in which Alexander was greatly deficiehward into Phrygia and to Gordium, where he cut or untied the celebrated Gordian knot, which, it was said, was to be loosened only by the conqueror of Asia. In B. C. 333, he was joined at Gordium by reinforcements from Macedonia, and commenced his second campaign. From Gordium he marched through the centre of Asia Minor into Cili and children fell into the hands of Alexander, who treated them with the utmost delicacy and respect. The battle of Issus, which was fought towards the close of B. C. 333, decided the fate of the Persian empire; but Alexander judged it most prudent not to pursue Darius, but to subdue Phoenicia, which was especially formidable by i
Ampho'terus (*)Amfotero/s), the brother of Craterus, was appointed by Alexander the Great commander of the fleet in the Hellespont, B. C. 333. Amphoterus subdued the islands between Greece and Asia which did not acknowledge Alexander, cleared Crete of the Persians and pirates, and sailed to Peloponnesus B. C. 331, to put down a rising against the Macedonian power. (Arrian, 1.25, 3.6; Curt. 3.1, 4.5, 8
e plot. The suspicion was strengthened by their known intimacy with Philotas, and by the fact that their brother Polerno had fled from the camp when the latter was apprehended (Arr. iii. pp. 72, f., 73, a.), or according to Curtius (7.1.10), when he was given up to the torture. Amyntas defended himself and his brothers ably (Curt. 7.1.18, &c.), and their innocence being further established by Polemo's re-appearance (Curt. 7.2.1, &c.; Arr. iii. p. 73a.), they were acquitted. Some little time after, Amyntas was killed by an arrow at the siege of a village. (Arr. iii. l.c.) It is doubtful whether the son of Andromenes is the Amyntas mentioned by Curtius (3.9.7) as commander of a portion of the Macedonian troops at the battle of Issus, B. C. 333; or again, the person spoken of as leading a brigade at the forcing of the "Persian Gates," B. C. 331. (Curt. 5.4.20.) But " Amyntas" appears to have been a common name among the Macedonians. (See Curt. 4.13.28, 5.2.5, 8.2.14, 16, 6.7.15, 6.9.28.)
s his flight from Macedonia to his hatred and fear of Alexander the Great; the ground of these feelings is not stated, but Mitford (ch. 44. sect. 1) connects him with the plot of Pausanias and the murder of Philip. He took refuge in Ephesus under Persian protection; whence, however, after the battle of the Granicus, fearing the approach of Alexander, he escaped with the Greek mercenaries who garrisoned the place, and fled to the court of Dareius. (Arr. l.c.) In the winter of the same year, B. C. 333, while Alexander was at Phaselis in Lycia, discovery was made of a plot against his life, ill which Amyntas was implicated. He appears to have acted as the channel through whom Dareius had been negotiating with Alexander the Lyncestian, and had promised to aid him in mounting the throne of Macedonia on condition of his assassinating his master. The design was discovered through the confession of Asisines, a Persian, whom Dareius had despatched on a secret mission to the Lyncestian, and who
A'ttalus 3. Arrian speaks (2.9, 3.12) of an Attalus who was the commander of the Agrianians in Alexander's army at the battles of Issus, B. C. 333, and Guagamela, B. C. 331. He seems to be a different person firm the son of Andromenes.
Autophradates (*Au)tofrada/ths), a Persian, who distinguished himself as a general in the reign of Artaxerxes III. and Dareius Codomannus. In the reign of the former he made Artabazus, the revolted satrap of Lydia and Ionia, his prisoner, but afterwards set him free. (Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 671.) [ARTABAZUS, No. 4.] After the death of the Persian admiral, Memnon, in B. C. 333, Autophradates and Pharnabazus undertook the command of the fleet, and reduced Mytilene, the siege of which had been begun by Memnon. Pharnabazus now sailed with his prisoners to Lycia, and Autophradates attacked the other islands of the Aegaean, which espoused the cause of Alexander the Great. But Pharnabazus soon after joined Autophradates again, and both sailed against Tenedos, which was induced by fear to surrender to the Persians. (Arrian, ANab. 2.1.) During these expeditions Autophradates also laid siege to the town of Atarneus in Mysia, but without success. (Aristot. Pol. 2.4.10.) Among the Persian satraps
Ba'lacrus (*Ba/lakros). 1. The son of Nicanor, one of Alexander's body-guard, was appointed satrap of Cilicia after the battle of Issus, B. C. 333. (Arrian, 2.12.) He fell in battle against the Pisidians in the life-time of Alexander. (Diod. 18.22.) It was probably this Balacrus who married Phila, the daughter of Antipater, and subsequently the wife of Craterus. (Phot. p. 111. b. 3, ed. Bekker
s prevailed on by Demades not to press the demand against any but Charidemus. Plutarch, however, omits the name of Chares in the list which he gives us. (Arr. Anab. 1.10 ; Plut. Dem. 23.) When Alexander invaded Asia in P. 100.334, Chares was living at Sigeum, and he is mentioned again by Arrian (Arr. Anab. 1.12) as one of those who came to meet the king and pay their respects to him on his way to Ilium. Yet we afterwards find him commanding for Dareius at Mytilene, which had been gained in B. C. 333 by Pharnabazus and Autophradates, but which Chares was compelled to surrender in the ensuing year. (Arr. Anab. 2.1, 3.2.) From this period we hear no more of him, but it is probable that he ended his days at Sigeum. As a general, Chares has been charged with rashness, especially in the needless exposure of his own person (Plut. Pel. 2); and he seems indeed to have been possessed of no very superior talent, though perhaps he was, during the greater portion of his career, the best commande
mitted to Demosthenes, whose friend he was, the earliest intelligence of that event. (Plut. Phoc. 16, Dem. 22 ; Aesch. c. Ctes. p. 64.) He was one of the orators whose surrender was required by Alexander in B. C. 335, after the destruction of Thebes, and the only one in whose behalf he refused to recede from his demand on the mediation of Demades. Charidemus, being thus obliged to leave his country, fled to Asia, and took refuge with Dareius, by whose orders he was summarily put to death in B. C. 333, shortly before the battle of Issus, having exasperated the king by some advice, too freely given, tending to abate his confidence in his power and in the courage of his native troops. (Arr. Anab. 1.10; Plut. Dem. 23, Phoc. 17; Diod. 17.15, 30; Deinarch. c. Dem. p. 94.) Diodorus (17.30) speaks of Charidemus as having been high in favour with Philip of Macedon; but the inconsistency of this with several of the authorities above referred to is pointed out by Wesseling. (Ad Diod. l.c.) [E.E]
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