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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 336 BC or search for 336 BC in all documents.

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of Grecian art, and equally distinguished as a statuary and a painter. (Quint. Inst. 12.10.6.) He was a native of the Corinthian isthmus, but he practised his art at Athens, and is reckoned by Plutarch as an Athenian. (De Glor. Ath. 2.) He is placed by Pliny (34.8. s. 19) at Ol. 104, no doubt because he painted the battle of Mantineia, which was fought in Ol. 104, 3 (B. C. 362/1), but the list of his works shews, almost certainly, that he flourished till after the accession of Alexander. (B. C. 336.) As a statuary, he wrought both in bronze and marble, and made figures of all sizes, from colossal statues to little drinking-cups. (Plin. Nat. 35.8, s. 40.25.) His most celebrated works were, a Paris, which expressed alike the judge of the goddesses, the lover of Helen, and the slayer of Achilles ; the very beautiful sitting figure of Paris, in marble, in the Museo Pio-Clementino is, no doubt, a copy of this work : a Minerva, at Rome, called the Catulian, from its having been set up by
Hecataeus (*(Ekatai=os), tyrant of Cardia, is first mentioned as one of the friends of Alexander the Great, and was selected by that monarch immediately after his accession (B. C. 336) to under-take the perilous duty of putting down the threatened revolt of Attalus in Asia. He crossed over to that continent with a considerable force, with which he joined the army of Parmenion; but after consulting with that general, he deemed it inexpedient to attempt his object by open force, and caused Attalus to be secretly assassinated. (Diod. 17.2, 5; comp. Curt. 7.1.3.) As we find no mention of Hecataeus during the operations of Alexander in Asia, it must be presumed that for some reason or another he did not accompany him in this expedition. (See, however, Curt. 7.1.38.) Nor do we know ally thing of the steps by which he raised himself to the sovereignty of his native city; but it appears that he must have done so long before the death of Alexander, as we are told that his fellow-citizen, Eum
Horte'nsius 2. Q. Hortensius, dictator about B. C. 286 (Fasti). The commons, oppressed by debt, had broken out into sedition, and ended by seceding to the Janiculum. He was appointed dictator to remledy the evil, and for this purpose re-enacted the Lex Horatia-Valeria (of the year 446 B. C.), and the Lex Pubülia (B. C. 336), "ut quod plebs jussisset omnes Quirites teneret." (Plin. H. N. xvi. ' 37; cf. Liv. Epit. xi.) On the supposed difference of these three laws, see Niebuhr, R. H. vol. ii. p. 365, vol. iii. p. 418, &c. He passed another law, establishing the nundinae as dies fasti, and introducing the trinundinum as the necessary term beteen promulgating and proposing a lex centuriata. (Dict. of Antiq. s. v. Nundinae.
Leonna'tus (*Leonna/tos). 1. A Macedonian of Pella, one of Alexander's most distinguished officers. His father's name is variously given, as Anteas, Anthes, Onasus, and Eunus. (Arrian. Anab. 3.5.7, 6.28.6, ind. 18, ap. Phot. p. 69a, ed. Bekker). According to Curtius he was descended from a royal house (Curt. 10.7), which may be the reason we find hint early occupying a distinguished post about the person of Philip of Macedon; at the time of whose death (B. C. 336) he was one of the select officers called the king's body guards (swmatofu/lakes). In this capacity he is mentioned as one of those who avenged the death of Philip upon his assassin Pausanias. (Diod. 16.94.) Though he accompanied Alexander on his expedition to Asia, he did not at first hold an equally distinguished position in the service of the young king: he was only an officer of the ordinary guards (e(tai=roi) when he was sent by Alexander after the battle of Issus to announce to the wife of Dareius the tidings of her
in his revolt against Dareius Ochus. When fortune deserted the insurgents they fled to the court of Philip. Mentor, the brother of Memnon [MENTOR], being high in favour with Dareius on account of his services in Egypt, interceded on behalf of Artabazus and Memnon, who were pardoned and again received into flavour. On the death of Mentor, Memnon, who possessed great military skill and experience, succeeded him in his authority, which extended over all the western coast of Asia Minor (about B. C. 336). When Alexander invaded Asia, Meninon, with the satraps Spithridates and Arsites, collected an army, with which they encamped on the banks of the Granicus. Memnon, thinking their forces insufficient to oppose Alexander, recommended that they should retire and lay waste the country behind them; but his advice was overruled. After the defeat of the Persian troops, Memrlon sent his wife and children to Dareius as tokens and pledges of his fidelity. As he had hoped, he was invested by the kin
Mene'crates (*Menekra/ths). 1. a Syracusan physician at the court of Philip, king of Macedon, B. C. 359-336. He seems to have been a successful practitioner, but to have made himself ridiculous by calling himself "Jupiter," and assuming divine honours. (Suid. s. v. *Menekra/ths.) He once wrote a letter to Philip, beginning *Menekra/ths *Zeu\ss *Fili/ppw| *Xai/rein, to which the king wrote back an answer in these words, *Fi/lippos *Menekra/tei u(giai/nein. * According to Plutarch, it was Agesilaus from whom he got this answer to his letter. (Vita Ages. 21, vol. vi. p. 29, ed. Tauchn.; Apophthegm. Reg. et Imper. vol. ii. p. 52, Apophthegm. Lacon. vol. ii. p. 109.) (Athen. 7.289; Ael. VH 12.51.) He was invited one day by Philip to a magnificent entertainment, where the other guests were sumptuously fed, while he himself had nothing but incense and libations, as not being subject to the human infirmity of hunger. He was at first pleased with his reception, but afterwards, perceiving th
ntomime actor in the reigns of Caligula and Claudius. The former emperor prized Mnester's acting so highly, that he used to kiss him before the audience, and once chastised with his own hands an eques who had made some disturbance during his performance. It was accounted among the portents of Caligula's death that on the morning of his assassination Mnester played a character which the tragedian Neoptolemus, centuries before, had acted on the day of Philip of Macedon's murder by Pausanias, B. C. 336. Under Claudius Mnester retained his popularity and his favour at court. He was among the many lovers of Poppaea Sabina, the mother of Nero's empress, and of Messalina, the wife of Claudius. [MESSALINA.] At first, through dread of the emperor, Mnester rejected Messalina's advances. But she had the art to persuade her imbecile husband to command the reluctant player to be compliant to her in all things; and, till supplanted by C. Silius, he remained her favourite. That she might have his so
Neopto'lemus 4. There was also a celebrated Athenian tragedian of this name, who performed at the games in which Philip of Macedon was slain, B. C. 336. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. p. 312; Diod. xvi. vol. ii. p. 152, ed. Amstel. 1745; Sueton. Cal. 100.57.) If Josephus (J. AJ 19.1) be correct, the play performed was on the subject of Cinyras and Myrrha. But Neoptolemus (Diod. l.c.), by order of the king, introduced some new lines (quoted by Diod. l.c.), probably composed by Neoptolemus himself. A saying of his on the murder of the king is recorded by Stobaeus (98. 70, vol. iii. p. 295, ed. Gaisford). He took an active part in the transactions between the Athenians and Philip. He had been intimate with and espoused the side of the latter, for whose court he ultimately left Athens. (Dem. pp. 58, 344, 442, ed. Reiske.) [W.M.G]
ourt of her brother Alexander, king of Epeirus, whom she stimulated to engage in war with Macedonia, at the same time that she continued to foment the intrigues of her son and his partisans at the court of Philip. She appears to have been the prime mover of the scheme for the marriage of Alexander with the daughter of Pixodarus, which gave especial offence to Philip ; and it was even generally believed that she lent her countenance and support to the assassination of the king by Pausanias, B. C. 336. It is, however, that deed in the open manner asserted by some writers. (Plut. Alex. 2, 9, 10; Just. 9.5, 7 11.11; Athen. 13.557c.) After the death of Philip she returned to Macedonia, where she enjoyed the highest consideration and influence through the affection and filial reverence of Alexander; of which she soon after took an unworthy advantage by availing herself of the absence of the young king to put to death her rival Cleopatra, together with her infant daughter; an act of cruelt
Papi'ria Gens patrician, and afterwards plebeian also. The history of this gens forms the subject of one of Cicero's letters to Papirius Paetus, who did not know that any of the Papirii had ever been patricians (ad Fam. 9.21). Cicero states that the Papirii were originally called Papisii, and that the first person who adopted the former form of the name was L. Papirius Crassus, consul, B. C. 336. We learn front the same authority that the patrician Papirii belonged to the minores gentes, and that they were divided into the families of CRASSUS, CURSOR, MAISO, and MUGILLANUS: and that the plebeian Papirii consisted of the families of CARBO, PAETUS, and TURDUS. The most ancient family was that of Mugillanus, and the first member of the gens who obtained the consulship was L. Paspeaking pirius Mugillanus, in B. C. 444. The gens, however, was of still higher antiquity than this, and is referred by tradition to the kingly period. The Papirius who composed the collection of the Leges Regiae
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