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we find him engaging in various enterprises. At one time he determined to enter the service of the Tarentines, then at war with the Lncanians; but a mutiny among his own troops having compelled him to abandon this project and return to the Peloponnese, he subsequently passed over to Crete, and assisted the Cnossiaus against their neighbours of Lyttus. He was at first successful, and took the city of Lyttus; but was afterwards expelled from thence by Archidamus king of Sparta : and having next laid siege to Cydonia, lost many of his troops, and was himself killed in the attack. We are told that his besieging engines were set on fire by iightning, and that he, with many of his followers, perished in the con flagration ; but this story was probably invented to give a colour to his fate of that divine vengeance which was believed to wait upon the whole of his sacrilegious race. His death appears to have been after that of Archidamus in inB. C. 338. (Diod. 16.61-63; Paus. 10.2.7.) [E.H.B]
fore; and meanwhile Aeschines and his party were blindly or treacherously promoting his designs against the liberties of their country. For the way in which they did so, and for the events which ensued down to the fatal battle of Chaeroneia, in B. C. 338, the reader is referred to the article DEMOSTHENES. The effect of this last decisive victory was to lay Greece at the feet of Philip; and, if we may believe the several statements of Theopompus, Diodorus, and Plutarch, he gave vent to his exuacedaemonians monians to surrender a portion of their territory to Argos, Tegea, Megalopolis, and Messenia; and having thus weakened and humbled Sparta and established his power through the whole of Greece, he returned home in the latter end of B. C. 338. In the following year his marriage with Cleopatra, the daughter of Attalus, one of his generals [CLEOPATRA, No. 1], led to the most serious disturbances in his family. Olympias and Alexander withdrew in great indignation from Macedonia, the
monstrating with Philip on the seizure of some Athenian ships by one of his admirals. Shortly after this, however, Philocrates was capitally impeached by Hyperides through an ei)saggeli/a, for his treason, and deemed it expedient to go into voluntary exile before the trial came on. Of his subsequent fortunes we have no certain information. Demosthenes, in his speech on the Crown, speaks of Philocrates as one of those who assailed him with false accusations after the battle of Chaeroneia in B. C. 338; and from this it might be inferred that the traitor had then returned from banishment, but Aeschines mentions him as still an exile in B. C. 330 (c. Ctes. p. 65), and we may therefore believe, with Mr. Newman, that Philocrates was still dangerous to Demosthenes in 338 by his voice or pen, "with which he could pretend to reveal scandalous secrets, owing to his former intimacy with him." (Heges. de Hal. pp. 82, 83; Dem. de Cor. pp. 230, 232, 250, 310, de Fals. Leg. pp. 343, 345, 348, 355, 3
emetrius, who demanded to be initiated, that Stratocles proposed the outrageouslyabsurd decree, that the people should call the month Munychion Anthesterion, and celebrate the smaller mysteries, and then forthwith change the name again to Boedromion and celebrate the greater mysteries (Plut. Demetr. 26). This was in B. C. 302. A fragment of a speech of Stratocles is quoted by Photius (Cod. ccl. 4. p.447, a. ed. Bekker.) from Agatharchides (Ruhnken. Hist. Crit. Orat. Graec. Opusc. p. 362, &c.). We find a Stratocles mentioned as one of the Athenian generals at the battle of Chaeroneia, in B. C. 338. (Polyaen. Strateg. 4.2; comp. Aesch. ad v. Ctes. 100.45. p. 74.) Droysen (Gesch. der Nachfolger Alexanders, p. 498) considers the gene ral and the orator to be identical. Cicero (Brutus, 11) mentions a Stratocles in a connection which seems to point him out as a rhetorician who was the author of some historical work. Ruhnken, however (l.c. p. 364) identifies him with the Athenian orator.
Thea'genes 3. General of the Theban forces at the battle of Chaeroneia (B. C. 338). Deinarchus (in Dem. ยง 75) brands him as a traitor, but according to Plutarch (Alex. 12), he fell in the battle
he now resolved to carry into execution his project of expelling all the tyrants from Sicily. Of these, two of the most powerful, Hicetas of Leontini, and Mamercus of Catana, had recourse to the Carthaginians for assistance, who sent Gisco to Sicily with a fleet of seventy ships and a body of Greek mercenaries. Although Gisco gained a few successes at first, the war was upon the whole favourable to Timoleon, and the Carthaginians were therefore glad to conclude a treaty with the latter in B. C. 338, by which the river Halycus was fixed as the boundary of the Carthaginian and Greek dominions in Sicily. It was during the war with Gisco that Hicetas fell into the hands of Timoleon. He had been completely defeated by Timoleon at the river Damurias, and was taken prisoner a few days afterwards, with his son Eupolemus. They were both slain by Timoleon's order. His wife and daughters were carried to Syracuse ; where they were executed by command of the people, as a satisfaction to the manes
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