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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 19 19 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 4 4 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 2 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 3-4 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 344 BC or search for 344 BC in all documents.

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Ada (*)/Ada), the daughter of Hecatomnus, king of Caria, and sister of Mausolus, Artemisia, Idrieus, and Pixodarus. She was married to her brother Idrieus, who succeeded Artemisia in B. C. 351 and died B. C. 344. On the death of her husband she succeeded to the throne of Caria, but was expelled by her brother Pixodarus in B. C. 340; and on the death of the latter in B. C. 335 his son-in-law Orontobates received the satrapy of Caria from the Persian king. When Alexander entered Caria in B. C. 334, Ada, who was in possession of the fortress of Alinda, surrendered this place to him and begged leave to adopt him as her son. After taking Halicarnassus, Alexander committed the government of Caria to her. (Arrian, Arr. Anab. 1.23; Diod. 16.42, 74; Strab. xiv. pp. 656, 657; Plut. Alex. 10
Andro'machus 2. Ruler of Tauromenium in the middle of the fourth century B. C., and the father of the historian Timaeus, is said to have been by far the best of the rulers of Sicily at that time. He assisted Timoleon in his expedition against Dionysius, B. C. 344. (Diod. 16.7, 68; Plut. Tim. 10.) Respecting the statement of Diodorus that he founded Tauromenium, see Wesseling, ad Diod. 14.59.
d those complaints; their endeavours to disguise Philip's real intentions and to represent them to the people in a favourable light, afforded an opportunity for Demosthenes, when the answer to be sent to the king was discussed in the assembly, B. C. 344, to place in his second Philippic the proceedings and designs of the king and his Athenian friends in their true light. The answer which the Athenians sent to Philip was probably not very satisfactory to him, for he immediately sent another emb. Respecting the question as to whether this oration was actually delivered or not, see Becker, Philippische Reden, i. p. 222, &c., and Vömel, Prolegom. ad Orat. de Pace, p. 240, &c. 6. The second Philippic The second Philippic, delivered in B. C. 344. See Vömel, Integram esse Demosth. Philip. II. apparet ex dispositione, Frankf. 1828, whose opinion is opposed by Rauchenstein in Jahn's Jahrb. vol. 11.2, p. 144, &c. 7. On Halonesus On Halonesus, B. C. 343, was suspected by the ancients the
Diopeithes 2. An Athenian general, father of the poet Menander, was sent out to the Thracian Chersonesus about B. C. 344, at the head of a body of Athenian settlers or klhrou=xoi. (Dem. de Chers. p. 91, Philipp. iii. p. 114; Pseud.-Dem. (de Halonn. pp. 86, 87.) Disputes having arisen about their boundaries between these settlers and the Cardians, the latter were supported, but not with arms in the first instance, by Philip of Macedon, who, when the Athenians remonstrated, proposed that their quarrel with Cardia should be referred to arbitration. This proposal being indignantly rejected, Philip sent troops to the assistance of the Cardians, and Diopeithes retaliated by ravaging the maritime district of Thrace, which was subject to the Macedonians, while Philip was absent in the interior of the same country on his expedition against Teres and Cersobleptes. Philip sent a letter of remonstrance to Athens, and Diopeithes was arraigned by the Macedonian party, not only for his aggression o
Eu'dicus (*Eu)/dikos), a Thessalian of Larissa, probably one of the family of the Aleuadae. Like most of his house, he was a devoted adherent of Philip of Macedon, and in B. C. 344 aided him in effecting the division of Thessaly into four tetrarchies, at the head of one of which he was himself placed. Demosthenes stigmatizes him as a traitor to his country. The division above named had the effect of reducing Thessaly entirely under the controul of Philip. (Dem. de Coron. p. 241; Harpocrat. s. v. *Eu)/dikos; Buttmann, Mythologus, vol. ii. p. 288, &c.; Böckh, Explic. ad Pind. Phth. x. p. 333.) [C.P
Hanno 4. Commander of the Carthaginian fleet and army sent to Sicily in B. C. 344, according to Diodorus (16.67). In all the subsequent operations of that expedition, Plutarch speaks of Mago as the Carthaginian commander (Timol. 17-20); but in one place (Ib. 19), he mentions Hanno as lying in wait with a squadron to intercept the Corinthian ships. Whether the same person is meant in both these cases, or that Hanno in Diodorus is merely a mistake for Mago, it seems impossible to decide.
emes, he at the same time entered into secret negotiations with the Carthaginians. Meanwhile, lie had assembled a considerable force, with which he attacked Syracuse ; and having defeated Dionysius in a decisive action, made himself master of the whole city, except the island citadel, in which he kept the tyrant closely besieged. (Plut. Tim. 1, 2, 7, 9, 11 ; Diod. 16.65, 67, 68.) This was the state of things when Timoleon, having eluded the vigilance of the Carthaginians, landed in Sicily (B. C. 344). Hicetas, learning that that general was advancing to occupy Adranum, hastened thither to anticipate him, but was defeated with heavy loss; and shortly afterwards Dionysius surrendered the citadel into the hands of the Corinthian leader. Hicetas, finding that he had now to cope with a new enemy, and having failed in an attempt to rid himself of Timoleon by assassination, determined to have recourse openly to the assistance of Carthage, and introduced Mago, at the head of a numerous fleet
mbled an army of 8000 mercenary troops, despatched them against Cyprus, under the command of Evagoras and the Athenian general Phocion. This is the only event of his reign which is recorded to us; but we may infer, from an expression of Isocrates, in B. C. 346 (Philipp. p. 102e), that the friendly relations between him and the Persian king did not long continue : they appear to have come even to an open rupture. But the hostility of Persia did not interfere with his prosperity, for he is spoken of by Isocrates in the same passage as one of the most wealthy and powerful of the princes of Asia; and Demosthenes tells us (de Pace, p. 63) that he had added to his hereditary dominions the important islands of Chios, Cos, and Rhodes. He died of disease in B. C. 344, after a reign of seven years, leaving the sovereign power, by his will, to his sister Ada, to whom, according to the eastern custom, he had been married. (Diod. 16.42, 45, 69; Strab. xiv. p.656; Arr. Anab. 1.23.8-10.) [E.H.B]
Mago 3. Commander of the Carthaginian fleet and army in Sicily in B. C. 344. When Timoleon had made himself master of the citadel of Syracuse after the departure of Dionysius, IIicetas, finding himself unable to cope single-handed with this new and formidable rival, called in the assistance of Mago. who appeared before Syracuse with a fleet of 150 triremes, and an army of 50,000 men. He did not, however, accomplish anything worthy of so great a force; not only were both he and Hicetas unable to make any impression on the island citadel, but while they were engaged in an expedition against Catana, Neon, the Corinthian governor of Syracuse, took advantage of their absence to make himself master of Achradina. Jealousies likewise arose between the Carthaginians and their Syracusan allies, and at length Mago, becoming apprehensive of treachery, suddenly relinquished the enterprise, and on the approach of Timoleon at the head of a very inferior force, sailed away with his whole fleet, and
Mamercus (*Ma/merkos), tyrant of Catana, at the time when Timoleon landed in Sicily, B. C. 344. He is termed by Plutarch a man both warlike and wealthy. After the defeat of Hicetas at Adranum by Timoleon, Mamercus joined the latter and concluded a treaty of alliance with him. But when Timoleon had not only made himself master of Syracuse, but defeated the Carthaginians in the great battle of the Crimissus (B. C. 339), Mamercus became apprehensive that his object was nothing less than the complete expulsion of all the tyrants from Sicily, and in consequence concluded a league with Hicetas and the Carthaginians to oppose his progress. They at first obtained a partial success, and cut to pieces a body of mercenaries in the Syracusan service; but Hicetas was defeated by Timoleon, and soon after fell into his hands; after which the Corinthian leader marched against Catana. Mamercus met him in the field, but was defeated with heavy loss, and the Carthaginians now concluded a peace with Tim
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