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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 43 43 Browse Search
Demosthenes, Exordia (ed. Norman W. DeWitt, Norman J. DeWitt) 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography 1 1 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 1 1 Browse Search
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(Diod. 16.90.) He appears to have held some high office in the Persian court five years before the death of his father, as we find him, apparently on behalf of the king, sending an embassy to Greece in B. C. 368. (Xen. Hell. 7.1.27.) Ariobarzanes, who is called by Diodorus (15.90) satrap of Phrygia, and by Nepos (Datam. 100.2) satrap of Lydia, Ionia, and Phrygia, revolted from Artaxerxes in B. C. 362, and may be regarded as the founder of the independent kingdom of Pontus. Demosthenes, in B. C. 352, speaks of Ariobarzanes and his three sons having been lately made Athenian citizens. (In Aristocrat. pp. 666, 687.) He mentions him again (pro Rhod. p. 193) in the following year, B. C. 351, and says, that the Athenians had sent Timotheus to his assistance; but that when the Athenian general saw that Ariobarzanes was in open revolt against the king, he refused to assist him. III. The son of Mithridates III., began to reign B. C. 266 and died about B. C. 240. He obtained possession of th
Artemi'sia 2. The sister, wife, and successor of the Carian prince Mausolus. She was the daughter of Hecatomnus, and after the death of her husband, she reigned for two years, from B. C. 352 to B. C. 350. Her administration was conducted on the same principles as that of her husband, whence she supported the oligarchical party in the island of Rhodes. (Diod. 16.36, 45; Dem. de Rhod. Libert. pp. 193, 197, 198.) She is renowned in history for her extraordinary grief at the death of her husband Mausolus. She is said to have mixed his ashes in her daily drink, and to have gradually died away in grief during the two years that she survived him. She induced the most eminent Greek rhetoricians to proclaim his praise in their oratory; and to perpetuate his memory she built at Halicarnassus the celebrated monument, Mausoleum, which was regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world, and whose name subsequently became the generic term for any splendid sepulchral monument. (Cic. Tusc. 3.31;
Beri'sades (*Berisa/dhs), a ruler in Thrace, who inherited, in conjunction with Amadocus and Cersobleptes, the dominions of Cotys on the death of the latter in B. C. 358. Berisades was probably a son of Cotys and a brother of the other two princes. His reign was short, as he was already dead in B. C. 352; and on his death Cersobleptes declared war against his children. (Dem. in Aristocr. pp. 623, 624.) The Birisades (*Birisa/dhs) mentioned by Deinarchus (c. Dem. p. 95) is pro-bably the same as Parisades, the king of Bosporus, who must not be confounded with the Berisades mentioned above. The Berisades, king of Pontus, whom Stratonicus, the player on the lyre, visited (Athen. 8.349d.), must also be regarded as the same as Parisades. [PARISADES
hed, but unsuccessfully, in the speech of Demosthenes yet extant. (Dem. c. Aristocr. pp. 624, 625, 680.) [CHARIDEMUS.] From a passing allusion in this oration (p. 681), it appears that Cersobleptes had been negotiating with Philip for a combined attack on the Chersonesus, which however came to nothing in consequence of the refusal of Amadocus to allow Philip a passage through his territory. But after the passing of the decree above-mentioned, Philip became the enemy of Cersobleptes, and in B. C. 352 made a successful expedition into Thrace, gained a firm ascendancy in the country, and brought away a son of Cersobleptes as a hostage. (Dem. Olynth. i. p. 12 ad fin.; Isocr. Phil. p. 86c.; Aesch. de Fals. Leg. p. 38.) At the time of the peace between Athens and Philip in B. C. 346, we find Cersobleptes again involved in hostilities with the Macedonian king, who in fact was absent in Thrace when the second Athenian embassy arrived at Pella, and did not return to give them audience till he
dorus, still, however, contriving to retain the town of Cardia; and his partizans among the orators at Athens having persuaded the people that they owed to him the cession of the Chersonesus (a strange delusion, if the narrative of events in Demosthenes may be depended on), they rewarded his supposed services with the franchise of the city and a golden crown. (Dem. c. Aristocr. pp. 650, 674-682; Arist. Rhet. 2.23.17; comp. Isocr. de Pac. p. 169c.) This appears to have been in B. C. 357. In B. C. 352, hoping perhaps to recover Amphipolis through his aid, they passed a decree in spite of the opposition of Demosthenes and his party (c. Aristocr. paisssim), pronouncing the person of Charidemus inviolable, and rendering any one who should kill him amenable to justice from any part of the Athenian empire. [CERSOBLEPTES.] In B. C. 349, after the recall of Chares, Charidemus was appointed by the Athenians as commander in the Olynthian war. In conjunction with the Olynthians, he ravaged Pallen
Cy'dias (*Kudi/as). 1. An Athenian orator, a contemporary of Demosthenes, of whom Aristotle (Aristot. Rh. 2.6.24) mentions an oration peri/ th=s *Sa/mou klmrouxi/as, which Ruhnken refers to the Athenian colony which was sent to Samos in B. C. 352 (Dionys. Deinarch. p. 118), so that the oration of Cydias would have been delivered in that year. (Ruhnken, Hist. Crit. Orat. Graec. p. Ixxiv
edonia, although the necessity of such a plan had been pointed out, and proposals had been made for it by Demosthenes in his first Philippic, which was spoken in B. C. 352. Philip's attack upon Olynthus in B. C. 349, which terminated in the year following with the conquest of the place, deprived the Athenians of their last strongho1825 and 1835), C. A. Rüdiger (Leipzig, 1818, 1829 and 1833), and J. T. Vömel. (Frankfurt, 1829.) 1. The first Philippic The first Philippic was delivered in B. C. 352, and is believed by some to be made up of two distinct orations, the second of which is supposed to commence at p. 48 with the words a(\ me\n h(mei=s. (Dionys. Endroti/wnos parano/mwn, belongs to B. C. 355, and has been edited separately by Funkhänel, Leipzig, 1832. 22. *Kata\ *)Aridtokra/tous *Kata\ *)Aridtokra/tous, B. C. 352. See Rumpf, De Charidemo Orita, Giessen, 1815. 23. *Kata\ *Timokra/tous *Kata\ *Timokra/tous, B. C. 353. See Blume, Prolegom. in Demosth. Orat. c. Timocrat.,
Dui'lius 5. C. Duilius, perhaps a brother of No. 4, was appointed, in B. C. 352, by the consuls one of the quinqueviri mensarii, for the liquidation of debts, and he and his colleague conducted their business with such skill and moderation, that they gained the gratitude of all parties. (Liv. 7.21.)
Duris (*Dou=ris), of Samos, a descendant of Alcibiades (Plut. Alc. 32), and brother of Lynceus, lived in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus. The early part of his life fell in the period when the Athenians sent 2000 cleruchi to Samos, by whom the inhabitants of the island were expelled, B. C. 352. During the absence from his native country, Duris, when yet a boy, gained a victory at Olympia in boxing, for which a statue was erected to him there with an inscription. (Paus. 6.13.3.) The year of that victory is unknown, but it took place previous to the return of the Samians to their island, in B. C. 324. He must have been staying for some time at Athens, as he and his brother Lynceus are mentioned among the pupils of Theophrastus. (Athen. 4.128.) After his return to Samos, he obtained the tyranny, though it is unknown by what means and how long he maintained himself in that position. He must, however, have survived the year B. C. 281, as in one of his works (ap. Plin. Nat. 8.40) he ment
Echi'on a painter and statuary, who flourished in the 107th Olympiad (B. C. 352). His most noted pictures were the following: Father Liber; Tragedy and Comedy; Semiramis passing from the state of a handmaid to that of a queen, with an old woman carrying torches before her; in this picture the modesty of the new bride was admirably depicted. He is ranked by Pliny and Cicero with the greatest painters of Greece, Apelles, Melanthius, and Nicomachus. (Plin. Nat. 34.8. s. 19; 35.7. s. 32; 10. s. 36.9.) The picture in the Vatican, known as "the Aldobrandini Marriage," is supposed by some to be a copy from the " Bride" of Echion. (Kugler, Handbuch d. Kunstgesch. p. 236; Müller, Arch. d. Kunst, § 1403.) Hirt supposes that the name of the painter of Alexander's marriage, whom Lucian praises so highly, AETION, is a corruption of Echion. (Gesch. d. Bild. Künste, pp. 265-268.) [P
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