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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 34 34 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 2 Browse Search
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (ed. H. Rackham) 1 1 Browse Search
Demosthenes, Exordia (ed. Norman W. DeWitt, Norman J. DeWitt) 1 1 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 353 BC or search for 353 BC in all documents.

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A'rete (*)Areth/), daughter of the elder Dionysius and Aristomache. She was first married to Thearides, and upon his death to her uncle Dion, the brother of her mother Aristomache. After Dion had fled from Syracuse during the reign of the younger Dionysius, Arete was compelled by her brother to marry Timocrates, one of his friends; but she was again received by Dion as his wife, when he had obtained possession of Syracuse and expelled the younger Dionysius. After Dion's assassination, B. C. 353, Arete was imprisoned together with her mother, and brought forth a son while in confinement. Arete and Aristomache were subsequently liberated and kindly received by Hicetas, one of Dion's friends, but he was afterwards persuaded by the enemies of Dion to drown them. (Plut. Dio 6, 21, 51, 57, 58; Aelian, Ael. VH 12.47, who erroneously makes Arete the mother, and Aristomache the wife of Dion
Arvi'na 1. A. Cornelius Cossus Arvina, P. F. A. N., whom Livy sometimes calls A. Cornelius Cossus, and sometimes A. Cornelius Arvina, was magister equitum B. C. 353, and a second time in 349. (Liv. 7.19, 26.) He was consul ill B. C. 343, the first year of the Samnite war, and was the first Roman general who invaded Samnium. While marching through the mountain passes of Samniam, his army was surprised in a valley by the enemy, and was only saved by the heroism of P. Decius, who seized with a body of troops a height which commanded the road. The consul then conquered the Samnites, and triumphed on his return to Rome. (7.28, 32, 34-38, 10.31; Niebuhr, Rom. Hist. iii. p. 120, &c.) Arvina was consul again in B. C. 322 (A. Cornelius iterum, Liv. 8.17), and dictator in 320, in the latter of which years he defeated the Samnites in a hardfought battle, though some of the ancient authorities attributed this victory to the consuls of the year. (Liv. 8.38, 39; Niebuhr, iii. p. 200, &c.)
g the pupils of Plato. When Dion afterwards returned to Syracuse, Callippus accompanied him, and was ever after treated by him with distinction and confidence. Notwithstanding this, Callippus formed at last a conspiracy against the life of Dion. The plot was discovered by Dion's sister; but Callippus pacified them by swearing, that he had no evil intentions towards Dion. But in spite of this oath, he assassinated Dion during a festival of Persephone, the very divinity by whom he had sworn, B. C. 353. Callippus now usurped the government of Syracuse, but maintained himself only for thirteen months. The first attempt of Dion's friends to cause an insurrection of the people against the usurper was unsuccessful; but, a short time after, Hipparenus, a brother of the younger Dionysius, landed with a fleet at Syracuse, and Callippus, who was defeated in the ensuing battle, took to flight. He now wandered about in Sicily from town to town, at the head of a band of licentious mercenaries, but
rn Asia. The Athenians at first approved of this proceeding, but afterwards ordered him to drop his connexion with Artabazus on the complaint of Artaxerxes III. (Ochus); and it is probable that the threat of the latter to support the confederates against Athens hastened at least the termination of the war, in accordance with the wishes of Eubulus and Isocrates, and in opposition to those of Chares and his party. (Diod. 16.22; Dem. Philipp. i. p. 46; Isoc. de Pac.; Arist. Rhet. 3.17.10.) In B. C. 353 Chares was sent against Sestus, which, as well as Cardia, seems to have refused submission notwithstanding the cession of the Chersonesus to Athens in 357. [CERSOBLEPTES.] He took the town, massacred the men, and sold the women and children for slaves. (Diod. 16.34.) In the Olynthian war, B. C. 349, he was appointed general of the mercenaries sent from Athens to the aid of Olynthus; but he seems to have effected little or nothing. The command was then entrusted to Charidemus, who in the en
Chion (*Xi/wn), the son of Matris, a noble citizen of Heracleia, on the Pontus, was a disciple of Plato. With the aid of Leon (or Leonides), Euxenon, and other noble youths, he put to death Clearchus, the tyrant of Heracleia. (B. C. 353.) Most of the conspirators were cut down by the tyrant's body-guards upon the spot, others were afterwards taken and put to death with cruel tortures, and the city fell again beneath the worse tyranny of Satyrus, the brother of Clearchus. (Memnon, apud Phot. Cod. 224, pp. 222, 223, ed. Bekker; Just. 16.5.) Works Letters ascribed to Chion There are extant thirteen letters which are ascribed to Chion, and which are of considerable merit; but they are undoubtedly spurious. Probably they are the composition of one of the later Platonists. Editions They were first printed in Greek in the Aldine collection of Greek Letters, Venet. 1499, 8vo.; again, in Greek and Latin, in the reprint of that collection, Aurel. Allob. 1606. The first edition in a sep
and of a body of mercenaries, and, having got rid of the nobles by murder and banishment, raised himself to the tyranny. He used his power as badly, and with as much cruelty as he had gained it, while, with the very frenzy of arrogance, he assumed publicly the attributes of Zeus, and gave the name of *Kerauno/s to one of his sons. He lived in constant fear of assassination, against which he guarded in the strictest way. But, in spite of his precautions, he was murdered by Chion and Leon in B. C. 353, after a reigns of twelve years. He is said to have been a pupil both of Plato and of Isocrates, the latter of whom asserts that, while he was with him, he was one of the gentlest and most benevolent of men. (Diod. 15.81, 16.36; Just. 16.4, 5; Polyaen. 2.30; Memn. apud Phot. Bibl. 224; Plut. de Alex. Fort. 2.5, ad Princ. inerud. 4; Theopomp. apud Athen. iii. p. 85; Isocr. Ep. ad Timoth. p. 423, ad fin.; Suid. s. v. *Kle/arxos; Wesseling, ad Diod. ll. cc. ; Perizon. ad Ael. V. H. 9.13.) [E.
Critobu'lus (*Krito/boulos), a Greek surgeon, said by Pliny (Plin. Nat. 7.37) to have extracted an arrow from the eye of Philip the son of Amyntas, king of Macedonia, (probably at the siege of Methone, B. C. 353) so skilfully that, though he could not save his sight, he prevented his face from being disfigured. He is also mentioned by Quintus Curtius (9.5) as having been the person who extracted the weapon from the wound which Alexander received in storming the principal fortress of the Mallians, B. C. 326. [CRITODEMUS.] [W.A.
gement of the guilt of his enemy. This affair belongs to the year B. C. 353, in which also the extant oration against Meidias was written, bu against Leptines and Androtion (Dionys. Ep. ad Amm. 1.4), and in B. C. 353 the oration against Timocrates. The general esteem which Demostheertaking a war against Persia (Dem. de Rhod. lib. p. 192), and in B. C. 353 he spoke for the Megalopolitans (u(pe\r *Megalopoltw=n), and oppoonian, and make head against him. It was only on one occasion, in B. C. 353, that the Athenians gained decided advantages by a diversion of tOrations. 12. *Peri\ *Sunta/cews *Peri\ *Sunta/cews, refers to B. C. 353, but is acknowledged on all hands to be spurious. F. A. Wolf, Prorg, 1836. 14. *(Upe\r *Megalopolitw=n *(Upe\r *Megalopolitw=n, B. C. 353. 15. *Peri\ th=s *(Rodi/wn e)leuqeri/as *Peri\ th=s *(Rodi/wn Giessen, 1815. 23. *Kata\ *Timokra/tous *Kata\ *Timokra/tous, B. C. 353. See Blume, Prolegom. in Demosth. Orat. c. Timocrat., Berlin, 182
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Diodo'rus of SINOPE (search)
Diodo'rus of SINOPE (*Dio/dwros), of SINOPE, an Athenian comic poet of the middle comedy, is mentioned in an inscription (Böckh, i. p. 354), which fixes his date at the archonship of Diotimus (B. C. 354-353), when he exhibited two plays, entitled *Nekro/s and *Maino/menos, Aristomachus being his actor. Suidas (s. v.) quotes Athenaeus as mentioning his *Au)lhtri/s in the tenth book of the Deipnosophistae, and *)Epi/klhros and *Panhguristai/ in the twelfth book. The actual quotations made in our copies of Athenaeus are from the *Au)lhtri/s (x. p. 431c.) and a long passage from the *)Epi/klhros (vi. pp. 235, e., 239, b., not xii.), but of the *Panhguristai/ there is no mention in Athenaeus. A play under that title is ascribed to Baton or to PLATO. There is another fragment from Diodorus in Stobaeus. (Serm. 72.1.) In another passage of Stobaeus (Serm. 125.8) the common reading, *Dionu/sios, should be retained. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. i. pp. 418, 419, iii. pp. 543-546.) [P
spotic enough. He caused his chief opponent, Heracleides, to be put to death, and confiscated the property of his adversaries ; but these measures only aggravated the discontent, which seems to have spread even to his own immediate followers. One of them, Callippus, an Athenian who had accompanied him from Greece, was induced by his increasing unpopularity to form a conspiracy against him, and having gained over some of his Zacynthian guards, caused him to be assassinated in his own house, B. C. 353. (Plut. Dio 52-57; Corn. Nep. Dion, 6-9; Diod. 16.31.) According to Cornelius Nepos, he was about 55 years old at the time of his death. There can be no doubt that the character of Dion has been immoderately praised by some ancient writers, especially by Plutarch. It is admitted even by his admirers that he was a man of a harsh and unyielding disposition, qualities which would easily degenerate into despotism when he found himself at the head of affairs. Even if he was sincere in the fir
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