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Amyntas 3. Grandson of Amyntas II., was left an infant in nominal possession of the throne of Macedonia, when his father Perdiccas III. fell in battle agains the Illyrians, B. C. 360. (Diod. 16.2.) He was quietly excluded from the kingly power by his uncle Philip, B. C. 359, who had at first acted merely as regent (Just. 7.5), and who felt himself so safe in his usurpation, that he brought up Amyntas at his court, and gave him one of his daughters in marriage In the first year of the reign of Alexander the Great, B. C. 336, Amyntas was executed for a plot against the king's life. (Thirlw. Gr. Hist. vol. v. pp. 165, 166, 177, vol. vi. p. 99, and the authorities to which he refers ; Just. 12.6, and Freinsheim, ad Curt. 6.9, 17.)
of his reign by Dexippus (apud Syncell. p. 494, Dind.), but apparently without any authority. (Hdt. 8.139; Justin, 7.2.) There was a pretender to the Macedonian crown of this name, who, with the assistance of the Illyrians, expelled Amyntas II. from his dominions (B. C. 393), and kept possession of the throne for two years. Amyntas then, with the aid of the Thessalians, succeeded in expelling Argaeus and recovering at least a part of his dominions. It is probably the same Argaeus who in B. C. 359 again appears as a pretender to the throne. He had induced the Athenians to support his pretensions, but Philip, who had just succeeded to the regency of the kingdom, by his intrigues and promises induced them to remain inactive. Argaeus upon this collected a body of mercenaries, and being accompanied by some Macedonian exiles and some Athenian troops, who were permitted by their general, Manlias, to join him, he made an attempt upon Aegae, but was repulsed. On his retreat to Methone, he w
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Capitoli'nus, Ma'nlius 9. Cn. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus, L. F. A. N., was consul in B. C. 359 with M. Popillius Laenas, and carried on a war with the Tiburtines. Two years later, B. C. 357, he was again called to the consulship, during which he had to carry on a war against the Faliscans and Tarquinienses. In B. C. 351 he was censor with C. Marcius Rutilus, and during the war with the Auruncans in 345, he was magister equitum to the dictator L. Furius Camillus. (Liv. 7.12, 16, 22, 28.) [L.S]
be under the command of Sparta, and the navy under that of Athens, Cephisodotus persuaded the assembly to reject the proposal, on the ground that, while Athenian citizens would have to serve under Spartan generals, few but Helots (who principally manned the ships) would be subject to Athenian control. Another arrangement was then adopted, by which the command of the entire force was to be held by each state alternately for five days. (Xen. Hell. 7.1. §§ 12-14.) It seems to have been about B. C. 359 that he was sent out with a squadron to the Hellespont, where the Athenians hoped that the Euboean adventurer, Charidemus, the friend of Cephisodotus, would, according to his promise made through the latter, co-operate with him in re-annexing the Chersonesus to their dominion. But Charidemus turned his arms against them, and marched in particular to the relief of Alopeconnesus, a town on the south-east of the Chersonese, of which Cephisodotus had been ordered to make himself master under t
, which belonged to Ariobarzanes, he was compelled, apparently by Timotheus, to raise the siege; but the town soon after revolted from Athens and submitted to Cotys, who, having in vain tried to persuade Iphicrates to aid him [IPHICRATES], again bought the services of Charidemus, made him his son-in-law, and prosecuted the war with his assistance. (Xen. Ages, 2.26; Nep. Timoth. 1; Dem. de Rhod. Lib. p. 193, c. Aristocr. pp. 663, 664, 672-674.) [CHARIDEMUS.] This appears to have occurred in B. C. 359, and in the same year, and not long after Philip's accession, we find him supporting the claims of the pretender Pausanias to the Macedonian throne; but the bribes of Philip induced him to abandon his cause. (Diod. 16.2, 3.) For his letter to Philip, perhaps on this occasion, see Hegesand. apud Athen. vi. p. 248. In B. C. 358, he was assassinated by Python or Parrhon and Heracleides (two citizens of Aenus, a Greek town in Thrace), whose father he had in some way injured. The murderers were
Laenas 1. M. Popillius Laenas, M. F. C. N., was consul B. C. 359. The civil disturbances which he is said to have suppressed by his authority and eloquence were perhaps more effectually quelled, as Livy intimates (7.12), by a sudden attack in the night of the Tiburtines on Rome. The city was full of consternation and fear: at daybreak, however, and as soon as the Romans had organised a sufficient corps, and sallied forth with it, the enemy was repulsed. In the second year after this M. Laenas is mentioned (Liv. 7.16) as prosecutor of C. Licinius Stolo for the transgression of his own law, which limited the possession of public land to 500 jugera. Pighius (Annales, vol. i. p. 284) has put down Popillius as praetor of the year B. C. 357, but this is not warranted by Livy's expression, as Drakenborch has shown (ad Liv. 7.16); and it is even improbable, from the term (accusare) used by Valerius Maximus (8.6.3). Perhaps Popillius was aedile, whose duty it seems to have been to prosecute t
Mene'crates (*Menekra/ths). 1. a Syracusan physician at the court of Philip, king of Macedon, B. C. 359-336. He seems to have been a successful practitioner, but to have made himself ridiculous by calling himself "Jupiter," and assuming divine honours. (Suid. s. v. *Menekra/ths.) He once wrote a letter to Philip, beginning *Menekra/ths *Zeu\ss *Fili/ppw| *Xai/rein, to which the king wrote back an answer in these words, *Fi/lippos *Menekra/tei u(giai/nein. * According to Plutarch, it was Agesilaus from whom he got this answer to his letter. (Vita Ages. 21, vol. vi. p. 29, ed. Tauchn.; Apophthegm. Reg. et Imper. vol. ii. p. 52, Apophthegm. Lacon. vol. ii. p. 109.) (Athen. 7.289; Ael. VH 12.51.) He was invited one day by Philip to a magnificent entertainment, where the other guests were sumptuously fed, while he himself had nothing but incense and libations, as not being subject to the human infirmity of hunger. He was at first pleased with his reception, but afterwards, perceiving th
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ately defeated by the skill of Agesilaus, and the Spartan king left Egypt with rich presents from Nectanabis, whom he had thus firmly established on the throne. (Xen. Ages.; Plut. Ages. 37-40, Apoph. Lac. Ages. 76-78; Diod. 15.92, 93; Wess. ad loc.; Nep. Chabr. 2, 3, Ages. 8; Ath. xiv. p. 616d, e; Paus. 3.10; Polyaen. 2.1; Aelian, V.H. 5.1; Perizon. ad loc.; Clinton, F.H. vol. ii. App. pp. 213, 316; Rchdantz, Vit. Iph. Chabr. Tim. 5.11.) Artaxerxes III. (Ochus), soon after his accession in B. C. 359, made several attempts to recover Egypt; but the generals, whom he sent thither, were utterly defeated by Nectanabis, through the skill mainly of two experienced commanders in his service, Diophantus, of Athens, and Lamius, of Sparta. The failure of the Persian attacks on Egypt encouraged Phoenicia also and Cyprus to revolt, and Artaxerxes accordingly (leaving the reduction of Cyprus to IDRIEUS) resolved to put himself at the head of an expedition which should crush the Phoenician rebellio
Plut. Alex. 2; Diod. 19.51; Paus. 1.11.1; Theopomp. fr. 232, ed. Didot.) Her temper, naturally vehement and passionate, led her to engage with wild enthusiasm in all the mystic rites and orgies of the Orphic and Bacchanalian worship; and we are told that it was on one of these occasions that Philip first met her at Samothrace, and became enamoured of her. (Plut. l.c. ; Himerius apud Phot. p. 367a.) But it was not till some time after the accession of the latter to the throne of Macedonia, B. C. 359, that their nuptials took place. (Justin. l.c.) The marvellous stories circulated at a subsequent period of the circumstances connected with the birth of Alexander, B. C. 356, and which gave rise to, or rather were invented in support of, the idea that the latter was the son of Ammon and not of Philip, are too well known to require further notice. (Plut. Alex. 2, 3 ; Paus. 4.14.7; Just. 11.11, 12.16; Lucian. Alex. 7; Arr. Anab. 4.10.3). Plutarch and Justin absurdly ascribe to these suspi
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
28-31, ed. Bekk.; Diod. 15.77, 16.2 ; Syncell. p. 263; Flathe, Gesch. Mlacedon. vol. i. p. 39-40; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. v. p. 162-164.) Of the subsequent reign of Perdiccas we have very Little information. We learn only that he was at one time engaged in hostilities with Athens on account of Amphipolis (Aesch. l.c. §§ 32-33), and that he was distinguished for his patronage of men of letters. Among these we are told that Euphraeus, a disciple of Plato, rose to so high a place in his favour, as completely to govern the young king, and exclude from his society all but philosophers and geometers. (Carystius, apud Atthen. xi. pp. 506, e. 508, d.) Perdiccas fell in battle against the Illyrians after a reign of five years, B. C. 359. (Diod. 16.2. The statement of Just. 7.5, that he was killed by Ptolemy of Alorus is clearly erroneous. See, however. Curt. 6.11.26.) He left an infant son, Amyntas, who was, however, excluded from the throne by his uncle Philip. [AMYNTAS, No. 3.] [E.H.
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