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And of their banishments, their civil strife, their subversion of laws, their political revolutions, their atrocities upon children, their insults to women, their pillage of estates, who could tell the tale? I can only say this much of the whole business—the severities under our administration could have been readily brought to an end by a single vote of the people,Such a decree of the Ecclesia as was passed in 378 B.C., when the new confederacy was formed, absolving the allies from paying tribute and from the practice of trying their cases in Athens. These had been the causes of friction. See Isoc. 12.63. while the murders and acts of violence under their regime are beyond any power to remedy
But why speak of ancient history, or of our dealings with the barbarians? If one should scan and review the misfortunes of the Hellenes in general, these will appear as nothing in comparison with those which we Athenians have experienced through the Thebans and the Lacedaemonians.Especially at the close of the Peloponnesian War. See Isoc. 14.31; Xen. Hell. 3.5.8. Nevertheless, when the Lacedaemonians took the field against the Thebans and were minded to humiliate Boeotia and break up the league of her cities, we sent a relief expeditionUnder Chabrias, against Agesilaus, 378 B.C. Xen. Hell. 5.4; Grote, Hist. ix. p. 343. and thwarted the desires of the Lacedaemonians.
these we must avoid, but first and foremost we should be careful that we are never found doing any cowardly deed or making any unjust concessions to the foe; for it would be shameful if we, who onceSpartan supremacy lasted, theoretically, more than thirty years, from the end of the Peloponnesian War （404 B.C.） to the battle of Leuctra. Meantime, however, the Athenians secured for a short period their second naval empire （378 B.C.）. were thought worthy to rule the Hellenes, should be seen carrying out their commands, and should fall so far below our forefathers that, while they were willing to die in order that they might dictate to others,Thucydides, i. 140, puts in the mouth of Pericles the assertion that the Spartans prefer to resolve their complaints by war and not by words, dictating terms instead of bringing charges. we would not dare to hazard a battle in order that we might prevent others from dictating
Many of you are wondering, I suppose, what in the world my purpose isStrictly, what my purpose was. The aorist tense reflects the fact that the Athenian orators had to give written notice, in advance, of any subject they proposed to discuss before the General Assembly. See Isoc. 7.15. in coming forward to address you on The Public Safety, as if Athens were in danger or her affairs on an uncertain footing, when in fact she possesses more than two hundred ships-of-war, enjoys peace throughout her territory, maintains her empire on the sea,The second Athenian Confederacy, organized in 378 B.C. See General Introduction p. xxxvii.
Why, who could believe that we had reached such a degree of folly as to have valued more highly a people who reduced our fatherland to slavery than the people who had given us a share in their own city?That is, the Athenians; see Introduction. No indeed, but it was difficult for us to attempt a revolt when we had so small a city ourselves and the Lacedaemonians possessed power so great, and when besides a Spartan governor occupied it with a garrison, and also a large army was stationed at Thespiae,Cf. Xen. Hell. 5.4.13-22. Cleombrotus, king of Sparta, in the beginning of 378 B.C., occupied Plataea and Thespiae. Sphodrias was the governor or harmost.
Well, then, I do not see how I could show more clearly that the charges filed against me are false and that I am not guilty of corrupting my associates.My accuser has mentioned also the friendship which existed between me and Timotheus,Timotheus, the son of Conon and the favorite pupil of Isocrates, was first appointed to an important command in 378 B.C. From that time on for twenty-two years he was one of the prominent generals in Athenian campaigns. In 357 he was associated with Iphicrates, Menestheus, and Chares in command of the Athenian navy. For his alleged misconduct in this command he was tried in Athens （356 B.C. according to Diodorus） and condemned to pay an enormous fine of 100 talents. See § 129 and note. Unable to pay this, he withdrew to Chalcis in Euboea, where he died shortly after. See Grote, History, vol. xi. pp. 27 ff. The eulogy of Timotheus here is a characteristic “digression.” See General lntrod. p. xvi. and has attempted to calumniate us both, nor did