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Di'phridas (*Difri/das), a Lacedaemonian, was sent out to Asia, in B. C. 391, after the death of Thibron, to gather together the relics of his army, and, having raised fresh troops, to protect the states that were friendly to Sparta, and prosecute the war with Struthas. With manners no less agreeable than those of his predecessor, he had more steadiness and energy of character. He therefore soon retrieved the affairs of Lacedaemon, and, having captured Tigranes, the son-in-law of Struthas, together with his wife, he obtained a large ransom for their release, and was thus enabled to raise and support a body of mercenaries. (Xen. Hell. 4.8. §§ 21, 22.) Diphridas, the Ephor, who is mentioned by Plutarch (Plut. Ages. 17) as being sent forward to meet Agesilaus, then at Narthacium in Thessaly, and to desire him to advance at once into Boeotia, B. C. 394. (Comp. Xen. Hell. 4.3.9.) The name Diphridas, as it seems, should be substituted for Diphilas in Diod. 14.97. [
vagoras had already received, in return for some services to Athens, the rights of an Athenian citizen, and was on terms of personal friendship with Conon (Isocr. Evag. p. 199e.; Diod. 13.106): hence lie zealously espoused the Athenian cause. It is said to have been at his intercession that the king of Persia determined to allow Conon the support of the Phoenician fleet, and he commanded in person the squadron with which he joined the fleet of Conon and Pharnabazus at the battle of Cnidus, B. C. 394. (Xen. Hell. 2.1.29; Isocr. Evag. pp. 199, 200; Paus. 1.3.2; Ctesias, apud Phot. p. 44b.) For this distinguished service a statue of Evagoras was set up by the Athenians in the Cerameicus, by the side of that of Conon. (Paus. 1.3.2; Isocr. Evag. p. 200c.) We have very imperfect information concerning the relation in which Evagoras stood to the king of Persia in the early part of his reign; but it seems probable that he was regarded from the first with suspicion: the tyrants whom he had
ungest of the three sons of the above, according to Suidas. After the death of his father he brought out three of his plays at the great Dionysia, viz. the Alcmaeon (no longer extant), the Iphigeneia at Aulis, and the Bacchae. (Schol. ad Arist. Ran. 67.) Suidas mentions also a nephew of the great poet, of the same name, to whom he ascribes the authorship of three plays, Medea, Orestes, and Polyxena, and who, he tells us, gained a prize with one of his uncle's tragedies after the death of the latter. It is probable that the son and the nephew have been confounded. Aristophanes too (Eccles. 825, 826, 829) mentions a certain Euripides who had shortly before proposed a property-tax of a fortieth. The proposal made him at first very popular, but the measure was thrown out, and he became forthwith the object of a general outcry, about B. C. 394. It is doubtful whether he is to be identified with the son or the nephew of the poet. (See Böckh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, pp. 493, 506, 520.) [E.E
Gylis, Gyllis (*Gu=lis, *Tu/llis, *Tu/los), or GYLUS, a Spartan, was Polemarch under Agesiläus at the battle of Coroneia, B. C. 394, against the hostile confederacy of Greek states. On the morning after the battle, Agesilaüs, to see whether the enemy would renew the fight, ordered Gylis (as he himself had been severely wounded) to draw up the army in order of battle, with crowns of victory on their heads, and to erect a trophy to the sound of martial instruments. The Thebans, however, who alone were in a position to dispute the field, acknowledged their defeat by requesting leave to bury their dead. Soon after this, Agesiläius went to Delphi to dedicate to the god a tenth of his Asiatic spoils, and left Gylis to invade the territory of the Opuntian Locrians, who had been the occasion of the war in Greece. (Comp. Xen. Hell. 3.5.3, &c.) Here the Lacedaemonians collected much booty; but, as they were returning to their camp in the evening, the Locrians pressed on them with their darts,
Iphi'crates (*)Ifikra/ths), the famous Athenian general, was the son of a shoemaker, whose name seems to have been Timotheus. He first brought himself into notice by gallantly boarding a ship of the enemy (perhaps at the battle of Cnidus, B. C. 394) and bringing off the captain to his own trireme. It was from this exploit, if we may believe Justin, that the Athenians gave him the command of the forces which they sent to the aid of the Boeotians after the battle of Coroneia, when he was only 25 years old. (Arist. Rhet. 1.7.32, 9.31, 2.23.8; Plut. Apoph. p. 41. ed. Tauchn. Just. 6.5; Oros. 3.1; see Rehdantz, Vit. Iphic. Chabr. Timoth. 1.7. Berol. 1845.) In B. C. 393 we find him general of a force of mercenaries in the Athenian service at Corinth; and in this capacity he took part in the battle of Lechaeum, wherein the Lacedaemonian commander, Praxitas, having been admitted within the long walls of Corinth, defeated the Corinthian, Boeotian, Argive, and Athenian troops. (Dem. Phil. i. p
Mamerci'nus 5. C. Aemilius Tib. F. Tib. N. MAMERCINUS, consular tribune in B. C. 394, carried on the war with his colleague Sp. Postumius Albinus against the Aequi. He was consular tribune again in B. C. 391, when, in conjunction with his colleague C. Lucretius, he conquered the people of Volsinii. (Liv. 5.26, 28, 32; Diod. 14.97, 107.)
Pausa'nias 5. King of Macedonia, the son and successor of Aeropus. He was assassinated in the year of his accession by Amyntas II., B. C. 394. (Diod. 14.82, 84.)
Peisander 3. A Spartan, brother-in-law of Agesilaus II., who made him admiral of the fleet in B. C. 395, permission having been sent him from the government at home to appoint whomsoever he pleased to the office. This is an instance of the characteristic having nepotism of Agesiaus; for Peisander, though brave and eager eager for distinction, was deficient in the experience requisite for the command in question. In the following year, B. C. 394, he was defeated and slain in a sea-fight off Cnidus, against Conon and Pharnabazus (Xen. Hell. 3.4.29, 4.3, §§ 10, &c; Plut. Ages. 10; Paus. 3.9; Diod. 14.83; Corn. Nep. Con. 4; Just. 6.3). Diodorus improperly calls him Periarchus. [E.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Publi'cola, Vale'rius 4. L. VALERIUS PUBLICOLA, was consular tribune five times, namely, in B. C. 394, 389, 387, 383, 380. (Liv. 5.26, 6.1, 5, 21, 27.)
nd artist of the name, a native of Elis, of whom nothing is known from any other source, is a vulgar uncritical expedient, which we have several times had occasion to condemn. The indications which we possess of the true time of Scopas, in the dates of some of his works, and in the period at which the school of art he belonged to flourished, are sufficiently definite. He was engaged in the rebuilding of the temple of Athena in Arcadia, which must have been commenced soon after Ol. 96. 2, B. C. 394, the year in which the former temple was burnt (Paus. 8.45.1). The part ascribed to him in the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, on the authority of Pliny (Plin. Nat. 36.14. s. 21), is a matter of some doubt; but the period to which this testimony would extend his career is established by the undoubted evidence of his share in the sculptures of the Mausoleum in Ol. 107, about B. C. 350, or even a little later. The date cannot be assigned with exactness to a year; but, as Mausolus died in Ol. 1
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