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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Parysatis or Parysatis Ochus (search)
nt Artaxerxes, though he was apparently fully convinced of his mother's guilt, was content to banish her to Babylon ; and it was not long before he entirely forgot the past, and recalled her to his court, where she soon recovered all her former influence. Of this she soon availed herself to turn his suspicions against Tissaphernes, whom she had long hated as having been the first to discover the designs of Cyrus to his brother, and who was now put to death by Artaxerxes at her instigation, B. C. 396. (Plit. Art. 19-23; Diod. 14.80; Polyaen. 7.16.1.) This appears to have been the last in the long catalogue of the crimes of Parysatis; at least it is the last mention that we find of her name. The period of her death is wholly unknown. The history of her intrigues and cruelties, the outline of which is above given, is very fully related by Plutarch (Artaxerxes), who has followed the authority of Ctesias, a resident at the court of Persia throughout the period in question, and bears every
Phara'cidas (*Faraki/das) a Lacedaemonian who commanded a fleet of thirty ships sent by the Spartans and their allies to the assistance of the elder Dionysius, when Syracuse was besieged by the Carthaginians under Himilco, B. C. 396. Having fallen in with a squadron of Carthaginian ships, he took nine of them, and carried them safely into the port of Syracuse. His arrival there infused fresh vigour into the besieged, and he appears to have contributed essentially to the successes that followed. At the same time he lent the weight of his name and influence as the representative of Sparta, to support the authority of Dionysius. (Diod. 14.63, 70, 72; Polvaen. 2.11.) [E. IB
g them to despair (Thuc. 5.63, &c.; Diod. 12.79 ; Wess. ad loc.). Diodorns speaks of him as having been high in dignity among his countrymen, and Pausanias (6.3) tells us that he was one of those to whom the Ephesians erected a statue in the temple of Artemis, after the close of the Peloponnesian war. He seems to have been the same person who was admiral in B. C. 397, and co-operated with Dercyllidas in his invasion of Caria, where the private property of Tissaphernes lay [DERCYLLIDAS]. In B. C. 396 he laid siege, with 120 ships, to Caunus, where Conon was then stationed; but he was compelled to withdraw by the approach of a large force under Pharnabazus and Artaphernes, according to Diodorus, in whom however the latter name appears to be a mistake for Tissaphernes (Xen. Hell. 3.2. §§ 12. &c. ; Diod. 14.79; Paus. 6.7; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. iv. p. 411). We learn from Theopompus apud Alten. xii. p. 536b. c.) that Pharax was much addicted to luxury, and was more like a Greek of Sicily
arge promises, which he never redeemed, to withdraw them front his territory. [ANAXIBIUS.] The great authority with which Tissaphernes was invested by Artaxerxes in Asia Minor, as a reward for his services in the war with Cyrus, naturally excited the jealousy of Pharnabazus; and the hostile feeling mutually entertained by the satraps was taken advantage of by Dercyllidas, when he passed over into Asia, in B. C. 399, to protect the Asiatic Greeks against the Persian power. [DERCYLLIDAS.] In B. C. 396, the province of Pharnabazus was invaded by Agesilaus, but the Lacedaemonian cavalry was defeated by that of the satrap. In 395, Tithraustes, who had been sent lv Artaxerxes to put Tissaphernes to death, and to succeed him in his government, made a merit with Agesilaus of his predecessor's execution, and urged him to leave his province unmolested, and to attack that of Pharnabazus instead, a request to which Agesilaus acceded, on condition that Tithraustes should bear the expense of the nm
of the supreme power, he naturally enjoyed a high place in his favour during the period of his rule; so great indeed was the confidence reposed in him by Dionysius, that the latter entrusted him with the charge of the citadel of Syracuse, upon the safe custody of which his power in great measure depended. According to one account, also, it was Philistus who, by his energetic and spirited counsels, prevented Dionysius from abandoning Syracuse in despair, when besieged by the Carthaginians, B. C. 396 (Diod. 14.8; Plut. Dio 35), and this account may be substantially correct, even though the saying attributed to him, that a despot should not abandon his power unless dragged from it by main force, seems to be more correctly ascribed to Megacles or Polyxenus. But at a later period he excited the jealousy of the tyrant by marrying, without his consent, one of the daughters of his brother Leptines, and was in consequence banished from Sicily. He at first retired to Thurii, but afterwards est
of the scholiast. who, seeing in the text of Aristophanes a joke on the voracity of the dithyrambic poets of his day, and having read of the gluttony of Philoxenus of Leucadia, identified the latter with Philoxenus the dithyrambic poet, and therefore supposed him to be referred to by Aristophanes. At what time Philoxenus left Athens and went to Sicily, cannot be determined. Schmidt (p. 15) supposes that he went as a colonist, after the first victories of Dionysius over the Carthaginians, B. C. 396; that he speedily obtained the favour of Dionysius, and took up his abode at his court at Syracuse, the luxury of which furnished him with the theme of his poem entitled *Dei=pnon. However this may be, we know that he soon offended Dionysius, and was cast into prison; an act of oppression which most writers ascribe to the wounded vanity of the tyrant, whose poems Philoxenus not only refused to praise, but, on being asked to revise one of them, said that the best way of correcting it would
of the scholiast. who, seeing in the text of Aristophanes a joke on the voracity of the dithyrambic poets of his day, and having read of the gluttony of Philoxenus of Leucadia, identified the latter with Philoxenus the dithyrambic poet, and therefore supposed him to be referred to by Aristophanes. At what time Philoxenus left Athens and went to Sicily, cannot be determined. Schmidt (p. 15) supposes that he went as a colonist, after the first victories of Dionysius over the Carthaginians, B. C. 396; that he speedily obtained the favour of Dionysius, and took up his abode at his court at Syracuse, the luxury of which furnished him with the theme of his poem entitled *Dei=pnon. However this may be, we know that he soon offended Dionysius, and was cast into prison; an act of oppression which most writers ascribe to the wounded vanity of the tyrant, whose poems Philoxenus not only refused to praise, but, on being asked to revise one of them, said that the best way of correcting it would
Rhathines (*(Raqi/nhs), a Persian, was one of the commanders sent by Pharnabazus to aid the Bithynians in opposing the passage of the Cyrean Greeks under Xenophon through Bithynia, B. C. 400. The satrap's forces were completely defeated (Xen. Anab. 6.5. §§ 7, &c). We hear again of Rhathines, in B. C. 396, as one of the commanders for Pharnabazus of a body of cavalry, which worsted that of Agesilaus, in a skirmish near Dascylium. (Xen. Hell. 3.4.13; Plut. Ages. 9.) [
Sci'pio 1. P. Cornelius Scipio, magister equitum, in B. C. 396, to the dictator M. Furius Camillus. The Capitoline Fasti, however, make P. Cornelius Maluginensis the magister equitum in this year. Scipio was consular tribune in B. C. 395, and again in 394. He was also twice interrex, once in B. C. 391, and again in 389. (Liv. 5.19, 24, 26, 31, 6.1.)
lso an Athenian tragic poet. The love of his grandfather towards him has been already mentioned; and it cannot be doubted that one chief way in which Sophocles displayed his affection was by endeavouring to train up his grandson as the inheritor of his own skill in the art of tragedy. We have no definite statement of his age, but he was probably under twenty at the time of his grandfather's death, as he did not begin to exhibit his own dramas till about ten years after that time, namely in B. C. 396. (Diod 14.53, where *Sofoklh=s o( *Sofokle/ous must either be corrected by adding ui(wno\s or ui(dou=s, or must be understood to mean the grandson, and not the son). He had previously, in B. C. 401, brought out the Oedipus at Colonus (Argum. ad Oed. Col.), and we may safely assume that this was not the only one of his grandfather's dramas which he exhibited. There is much difficulty as to the proper reading of the numbers of plays and victories ascribed to him. According to the different
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