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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 44 44 Browse Search
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson) 3 3 Browse Search
Aristotle, Politics 1 1 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 1 1 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1 1 Browse Search
Sir Richard C. Jebb, Commentary on Sophocles: Oedipus at Colonus 1 1 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 1 1 Browse Search
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Aristotle, Politics, Book 6, section 1319b (search)
ons; they ought however only to go on adding citizens up to the point where the multitude outnumbers the notables and the middle class and not to go beyond that point; for if they exceed it they make the government more disorderly, and also provoke the notables further in the direction of being reluctant to endure the democracy, which actually took place and caused the revolution at CyreneIn N. Africa. Diodorus (Diod. 14.34) describes a revolution there in 401 B.C., when five hundred of the rich were put to death and others fled, but after a battle a compromise was arranged.; for a small base element is overlooked, but when it grows numerous it is more in evidence.A democracy of this kind will also find useful such institutions as were employed by CleisthenesSee 1275b 36 n. at Athens when he wished to increase the power of the democracy, and by the party setting up the democracy at Cyrene; different tribes
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XIV, Chapter 18 (search)
401 B.C.In Sicily Dionysius, the tyrant of the Siceli,See 7.1, note. since his government was making satisfactory progress, determined to make war upon the Carthaginians; but being not yet sufficiently prepared, he concealed this purpose of his while making the necessary preparations for the coming encounters. And realizing that in the war with Athens the city had been blocked off by a wall that ran from the sea to the sea,See Book 13.7. he took care that he should never, where caught at a similar disadvantage, be cut off from contact with the countryside; for he saw that the site of Epipolae, as it is called, naturally commanded the city of the Syracusans. Sending, therefore, for his master-builders, in accord with their advice he decided that he must fortify Epipolae at the point where there stands now the Wall with the Six Gates. For this place, which faces north, is precipitous in its entirety, and so steep that access is hardly to be w
Isocrates, Evagoras (ed. George Norlin), section 58 (search)
For he was manifestly more concerned about the war in Cyprus than about any other, and regarded Evagoras as a more powerful and formidable antagonist than Cyrus, who had disputed the throne with him.Cf. Xen. Anab. 1 for the famous expedition of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes II. See Isoc. 4.145. The most convincing proof of this statement is this: when the king heard of the preparations Cyrus was making he viewed him with such contempt that because of his indifference Cyrus almost stood at the doors of his palace before he was aware of him.The battle of Cunaxa (401 B.C.) in which Cyrus was slain. The distance from Babylon, according to Xenophon, was 360 stades (c. 45 miles). With regard to Evagoras, however, the king had stood in terror of him for so long a time that even while he was receiving benefits from him he had undertaken to make war upon him—a wrongful act, indeed, but his purpose was not altogether unre
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Elis 1, chapter 6 (search)
e cities of Triphylia but in the war between Pisa and Elis the citizens of Scillus openly helped Pisa against her enemy, and for this reason the Eleans utterly destroyed it. The Lacedaemonians afterwards separated Scillus from Elis and gave it to Xenophon, the son of Grylus, when he had been exiled from Athens, The reason for his banishment was that he had taken part in an expedition which Cyrus, the greatest enemy of the Athenian people, had organized against their friend, the Persian king.401 B.C. Cyrus, in fact, with his seat at Sardis, had been providing Lysander, the son of Aristocritus, and the Lacedaemonians with money for their fleet. Xenophon, accordingly, was banished and having made Scillus his home he built in honor of Ephesian Artemis a temple with a sanctuary and a sacred enclosure. Scillus is also a hunting-ground for wild boars and deer, and the land is crossed by a river called the Selinus. The guides of Elis said that the Eleans recovered Scillus again, and that Xenop
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 2, chapter 4 (search)
edges to which you have sworn, but I ask you rather to show this virtue also, in addition to your other virtues,—that you are true to your oaths and are god-fearing men.” When he had said this and more to the same effect, and had told them that there was no need of their being disturbed, but that they had only to live under the laws that had previously been in force, he dismissed the Assembly. So at that time they appointed their magistrates and proceeded to carry on their government; but at401 B.C. a later period, on learning that the men at Eleusis were hiring mercenary troops, they took the field with their whole force against them, put to death their generals when they came for a conference, and then, by sending to the others their friends and kinsmen, persuaded them to become reconciled. And, pledged as they were under oath, that in very truth they would not remember past grievances, the two parties even to this day live together as fellow-citizens and the commons abide by their o
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 3, chapter 1 (search)
So ended the civil strife at Athens. Shortly401 B.C. after this Cyrus sent messengers to Lacedaemon and asked that the Lacedaemonians should show themselves as good friends to him as he was to them in the war against the Athenians. And the ephors, thinking that what he said was fair, sent instructions to Samius, at that time their admiral, to hold himself under Cyrus' orders, in case he had any request to make. And in fact Samius did zealously just what Cyrus asked of him: he sailed round to Ciller of Cilicia, to oppose Cyrus by land in his march against the Persian king. As to how Cyrus collected an army and with this army made the march up country against his brother,Artaxerxes. how the battleAt Cunaxa, near Babylon, in the autumn of 401 B.C. was fought, how Cyrus was slain, and how after that the Greeks effected their return in safety to the sea—all this has been written by ThemistogenesUnknown except for this reference. It would seem that Xenophon's own Anabasis was not published a
Sir Richard C. Jebb, Commentary on Sophocles: Oedipus at Colonus, commLine 156 (search)
a)ll' i(/na … mh\ prope/sh|s is answered by meta/staq' 162. prope/sh|s e)n na/pei, advance blindly in the grove, till he stumble (so to say) on its inmost mystery. Cp. Arist. Eth. 3.7.12 oi( me\n qrasei=s propetei=s. Isocr. or. 5 § 90 (the Greeks, when conquering the Persians at Cunaxa, 401 B.C.a, were worsted)dia\ th\n *ku/rou prope/teian, his precipitancy in rushing at his brother Artaxerxes (Xen. Anab. 1.8.26 ei)pw/n, *(orw= to\n a)/ndra, i(/eto e)p' au)to/n). a)fqe/gktw|: see on 130 f
M. Acutius M. ACU'TIUS, tribune of the plebs B. C. 401, was elected by the other tribunes (by co-optation) in violation of the Trebonia lex. (Liv. 5.10; Dict. of Ant. p. 566a.)
on the allies of Sparta, for the purpose of constructing a fleet. While at Deceleia he acted in a great measure independently of the Spartan government, and received embassies as well from the disaffected allies of the Athenians, as from the Boeotians and other allies of Sparta. (Thuc. 8.3, 5.) He seems to have remained at Deceleia till the end of the Peloponnesian war. In 411, during the administration of the Four Hundred, he made an unsuccessful attempt on Athens itself. (Thuc. 8.71.) In B. C. 401, the command of the war against Elis was entrusted to Agis, who in the third year compelled the Eleans to sue for peace. As he was returning from Delphi, whither he had gone to consecrate a tenth of the spoil, he fell sick at Heraea in Arcadia, and died in the course of a few days after he reached Sparta. (Xen. Hell. 3.2.21, 3.3.1-4.) He left a son, Leotychides, who however was excluded from the throne, as there was sone suspicion with regard to his legitimacy. While Alcibiades was at Spar
Arbaces 2. A commander in the army of Artaxerxes, which fought against his brother Cyrus, B. C. 401. He was satrap of Media. (Xen. Anab. 1.7.12, 7.8.25.)
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