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Pa'sion (*Pasi/wn). 1. A Meegarian, was one of those who were employed by Cyrus the younger in the siege of Miletus, which hsad continued to adhere to Tissaphernes; and, when Cyrus commenced his expedition against his brother, in B. C. 401, Pasion joined him at Sardis with 700 men. At Tarsus a number of his soldiers and of those of Xeni;as, the Arcadian, left their standards for that of Clearchus, on the declaration of the latter, framed to induce the Greeks not to abandon the enterprise, that he would stand by them and share their fortunes in spite of the obligations he was under to Cyrus. The prince afterwards permitted Clearchseb to retain the troops in question, and it was fisoni ofifece at this, as usually supposed, that Pasito and Xenias deserted the army at the Phoenician sea-port of Myriandrus, and sailed away for Greece with the most valuable of theireffects. Cyrus displayed a politic forbearance on the occasion, and excited the Greeks to greater alacrity in his cause, by
some celebrity. He was a native of Elis, and of high birth. He was taken prisoner in his youth, and passed into the hands of an Athenian slave dealer; and being of considerable personal beauty (Plat. Phaed. 100.38) was compelled to prostitute himself. (D. L. 2.105; Suid. s. v. *Fai/dwn ; A. Gellius, N. A. 2.18.) The occasion on which he was taken prisoner ws no doubt the war between Sparta and Elis, in which the Lacedaemonians were joined by the Athenians, which was carried on in the years B. C. 401, 400. (Clinton, s.a) The reading *)Indw=n in Suidas is of course an error. The later date assigned for the war by Krüger and others is manifestly erroneous. (See Clinton, Fasti Hellen. vol. ii. p. 220, ed. 3.) So that it would be in the summer of B. C. 400 that Phaedon was brought to Athens. A year would thus remain for his acquaintance with Socrates, to whom he attached himself. According to Diogenes Laertius (i. c.) he ran away from his master to Socrates, and was ransomed by one of the
Phali'nus (*Fali=nos) a Zacynthian, in the service of the satrap Tissaphernes, with whom he was in high favour in consequence of his pretensions to military science. After the battle of Cnnaxa, B. C. 401, he accompanied the Persian heralds, whom Artaxerxes and Tissaphernes sent to the Cyrean Greeks to require them to lay down their arms; and he recommended his countrymen to submit to the king, as the only means of safety. Plutarch calls him Phalenus. (Xen. Anab. 2.1. §§ 7-23; Plut. Art. 13.) [
Xenophon. Being connected by the ties of hospitality with the younger Cyrus, the latter engaged him in his service. He came to Sardes at the head of 1500 heavy armed, and 500 light armed soldiers, (Xen. Anab. 1.1.11, 2.3.) It was at his invitation that Xenophon was induced to enter the service of Cyrus (3.1. §§ 4, 8). He was one of the four ill-fated generals whom Clearchus persuaded to accompany him to Tissaphernes. He was seized with the rest, and taken to the king of Persia, and afterwards put to death (2.5.31, 2.6.1). Xenophon speaks of him as a man whose ambition was under the influence of strict probity, and who was especially anxious to secure the affections of his soldiers, so that while the well-disposed readily obeyed him, he failed to inspire the rest with a wholesome fear of his authority (2.6.17, &c.). He was 30 years of age at the time of his death (B. C. 401). For other occasions on which he is mentioned by Xenophon, see Anab. 1.5.14, 2.1.10, 5.3.5. (Comp. D. L. 2.49
Sila'nus (*Silano/s), an Ambracian soothsayer, who accompanied Cyrus the Younger in his expedition against his brother Artaxerxes, in B. C. 401. For a successful prediction Cyrus rewarded him with 3000 darics, or 10 talents. This money Silanus carefully preserved throughout the campaign and subsequent retreat, and was very anxious to return with it to his country. Accordingly, when Xenophon consulted him at Cotyora, on the plan which he had formed of founding a Greek colony on the coast of the Euxine, he revealed the project to the Cyreans, and did all in his power to thwart it. On this Xenophon publicly professed to have abandoned the design, and proposed that no one should be permitted to remain behind the rest of the army, or to sail away before it. The latter part of this proposition was most disagreeable to Silanus, who loudly remonstrated against it, but to no purpose, the soldiers threatening to punish him, should they catch him in any attempt to depart by himself. Not long af
Socrates 2. An Achaean, a leader of mercenary troops, who was one of those that took part in the expedition of the younger Cyrus, B. C. 401. He was already serving in Asia when that prince began to assemble his forces, and hastened to join him at Sardis with a body of five hundred heavy armed mercenaries. Of these it is clear that he retained the command throughout the expedition, though his name is not again particularly mentioned until after the battle of Cunaxa, when we find him as one of the generals taking part in the council of war held to deliberate on the overtures made by the Persian king through the medium of Phalinus. He was afterwards one of the four leaders who accompanied Clearchus to the tent of Tissaphernes, when all the five were treacherously seized by that satrap, and subsequently put to death by order of Artaxerxes himself. (Xen. Anab. 1.1.11, 2.3, 2.5.31, 6. §§ 1, 30; Diod. 14.19, 25
Sophae'netus (*Sofai/netos), a native of Stymphalus in Arcadia, was a commander of mercenaries in the service of Cyrus the Younger, whom he joined in his expedition against Artaxerxes, in B. C. 401, with 1000 heavy-armed men. In the following year, after the treacherous apprehension of Clearchus and the other principal generals of the Cyreans, Sophaenetus and Cleanor were deputed to meet Ariaeus, and receive his explanation of the transaction. When the main body of the Greeks, after their arrival on the frontier of the western Armenia, marched to dislodge Teribazus from the defile where he meant to intercept them, Sophaenetus remained behind in command of the troops that were left to guard the camp. At Trapezus, Philesius and Sophaenetus, being the oldest of the generals, were placed in command of the ships which were to sail to Cerasus with the men above forty, and the women and children, while the rest of the army proceeded thither by land. Some deficiency being afterwards detected
ing to train up his grandson as the inheritor of his own skill in the art of tragedy. We have no definite statement of his age, but he was probably under twenty at the time of his grandfather's death, as he did not begin to exhibit his own dramas till about ten years after that time, namely in B. C. 396. (Diod 14.53, where *Sofoklh=s o( *Sofokle/ous must either be corrected by adding ui(wno\s or ui(dou=s, or must be understood to mean the grandson, and not the son). He had previously, in B. C. 401, brought out the Oedipus at Colonus (Argum. ad Oed. Col.), and we may safely assume that this was not the only one of his grandfather's dramas which he exhibited. There is much difficulty as to the proper reading of the numbers of plays and victories ascribed to him. According to the different readings, he exhibited 40 or 11 dramas, and gained 12, 11, or 7 prizes. (Suid. s.v. Diod. l.c. ; comp. Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. xxxv. e.) All that we know of his tragedies is contained in a passage
l her brothers and sisters on account of the revolt of their eldest brother Terituchmes (Ctesias, Pers. §§ 53-56; Plut. Artax. 2). The enmity thus originated between Parysatis and Stateira was aggravated by many successive circumstances. Parysatis, while she exercised great influence over Artaxerxes, still preferred her son Cyrus, while Stateira was warmly attached to her husband, who appears to have requited her affection with equal ardour. Hence, when the rebellion of Cyrus became known, B. C. 401, Stateira was one of the loudest in the clamour raised against the queenmother, who by her ill-timed favour to her younger son had involved the empire in these dangers. Again, after the defeat and death of Cyrus, the cruelty with which Parysatis on the one hand pursued all who had any personal share in his death, and on the other the favour shown by her to Clearchus, and her efforts to induce the king to spare his life, were bitterly reproached her by Stateira, who did not scruple to attri
Sye'nnesis 3. Contemporary with Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon). When Cyrus the younger, marching against Artaxerxes, in B. C. 401, arrived at the borders of Cilicia, he found the passes guarded by Syennesis, who, however, withdrew his troops, on receiving intelligence that the force sent forward by Cyrus under Menon had already entered Cilicia, and that the combined fleet of the Lacedaemonians and the prince, under Samius and Tamos, was sailing round from Ionia. When Cyrus reached Tarsus, the Cilician capital, he found that Menon's soldiers had sacked the city, and that Syennesis had fled for refuge to a stronghold among the mountains. He was induced, however, by his wife Epyaxa to obey the summons of Cyrus, and to present himself before him at Tarsus. Here he received gifts of honour from the young prince, whom he supplied in his turn with a large sum of money and a considerable body of troops under the command of one of his sons. At the same time, however, he took care to send his other s
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