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the main land, and therefore beyond the reach of the Athenian navy. (Thuc. 8.31; Arnold and Göller, ad loc.) In B. C. 411, when Tissaphernes went to Aspendus, with the professed intention of bringing to the aid of the Peloponnesians the Phoenician fleet which he had promised, he commissioned Tamos to provide for the maintenance of the Peloponnesian forces during his absence. (Thuc. 8.87.) Tamos afterwards attached himself to the service of the younger Cyrus, and, acting as his admiral, in B. C. 401, blockaded Miletus, which had refused to transfer its obedience from Tissaphernes to the prince. When Cyrus marched eastward against his brother, Tamos conducted the fleet along the coast to accompany the movements and second the operations of the army, which he joined at Issus in Cilicia. After the death of Cyrus and the consequent failure of the rebellion, Artaxerxes sent Tissaphernes into Western Asia to take, in addition to his own satrapy, the command of the provinces which had been s
Telestas 2. Of Selinus, a distinguished poet of the later Athenian dithyramb, is mentioned by Diodorns Siculus (14.46) as flourishing at Ol. 95. 3, B. C. 398, with Philoxenus, Timotheus, and Polyeidus and this date is confirmed by the Parian Marble (Ep. 66). according to which Telestes gained a dithyrambic victory in B. C. 401. (Comp. Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. s. aa. 401, 398). He is also mentioned by Plutarch (Alex. 8), who states that Alexander had the dithyrambs of Telestes and Philoxenus sent to him in Asia. He is also referred to by the comic poet Theopompus, in his Althaca (Ath. xi. p. 501f.; Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. ii. p. 793, where Meineke promises some future remarks upon the poet). Aristoxenus wrote a life of him, which is quoted by Apollonius Dyscolus (Hist. Mirab. 40, in Westermann's Paradoxographi, p. 113); and Aristratus, the tyrant of Sicyon, erected a monument to his memory, adorned with paintings by Nicomachus. (Plin. Nat. 35.10. s. 36.22, where the common read
tomb of Thucydides at Athens, and he probably died there the testimony of Timaeus that he died in Italy, is of little value. The question as to the time of the return of Thucydides to Athens, and of the place of his death and interment, is discussed by Krüger with a wearisome minuteness, and with uncertain results. As to the time of the death of Thucydides, he concludes that it could not be later than the end or about the middle of the 94th Olympiad, that is, in any event not later than B. C. 401. His own direct testimony (5.26) simply shows that he was living after the war was ended (B. C. 404). Dodwell argues that the third eruption of Aetna, which Thucydides (3.116) alludes to was tire eruption of B. C. 399 or the 95th Olympiad; but Thucydides means to say that the eruption, of which he does not fix the date, was prior to the two eruptions (B. C. 425 and 475) of which he does fix the dates. There is no doubt about the true interpretation of this passage. The time when he compo
Tiribazus or TERIBAZUS (*Tiri/baxos, *Thri/baxos), a Persian, high i the favour of Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon), and when he was present, so Xenophon tells us, no one else had the honour of helping the sovereign to mount his horse. At the time of the retreat of the 10,000, in B. C. 401, Tiribazus was satrap of Western Armenia, and, when the Greeks had reached the river Teleboas on the frontier of his territory, he himself rode up to their camp and proposed a truce, on condition that both parties should abstain from molesting each other, the Greeks taking only what they needed while in his country. The terms were accepted, but Tiribazus kept watching the 10,000 at the distance of several stadia with the intent of assailing them in a mountain pass, through which their march necessarily lay. On hearing this, the main body of the Greeks hastened to secure the pass, and, having moreover attacked the camp of Tiribazus, put the barbarians to flight, and captured the tent of the satrap himself (X
western Asia, Cyrus and Tissaphernes were engaged in continual disputes about the cities in the satrapy of the latter, over which Cyrus claimed dominion, and all of which indeed transferred their allegiance to him, with the exception of Miletus, where Tissaphernes quenched an intended revolt in blood. The ambitious views of Cyrus towards the throne at length became manifest to the satrap, who lost no time in repairing to the king with information of the danger. At the battle of Cunaxa, in B. C. 401, he was one of the four generals who commanded the army of Artaxerxes, and was stationed with the main body of the cavalry in the left wing, of which his troops were the only portion that was not put to flight by the Greeks. When the 10,000 had begun their retreat, Tissaphernes sought an interview with them, professed his great anxiety to serve them, as being a neighbour of Greece in his satrapy, and declared that he had been using in their favour his influence with the king, who had promi
Trebo'nius 2. Cn. Trebonius, tribune of the plebs B. C. 401, vigorously resisted the attempts of the patres to undermine the law of his ancestor. (Liv. 5.11.)
Xanthicles (*Canqiklh=s), an Achaean, was chosen to be one of the generals of the Cyrean Greeks in the place of his countryman Socrates, when the latter, with Clearchus and three other colleagues, had been treacherously arrested by Tissaphernes, B. C. 401. When the army had reached Cotyora, a court was held to inquire into the conduct of the generals, and Xanthicles was one of those who were fined for a deficiency in the cargoes of the ships, which had brought the soldiers from Trapezus, and of which he was a commissioner. (Xen. Anab. 3.1.47, 5.8.1.) [E.
. There has been much discussion on the age of Xenophon at the time when he joined the expedition of the younger Cyrus, B. C. 401. Those who would make him a young man between twenty and thirty must reject the evidence as to the battle of Delium. Plould almost lead to the conclusion that his name ought not to occur in the first two books. (Comp. Clinton, Fast. Hell. B. C. 401.) Xenophon is said to have been a pupil of Socrates at an early age, which is consistent with the intimacy which mighracuse. Letronne (Biog. Univ. art. Xenophon), endeavours to show that Xenophon wrote the Symposium and the Hiero before B. C. 401; but his conclusion can hardly be said to be even a strong probability. Xenophon was the editor of the History of Thucydides, but no time can be fixed for this; nor can we assent to Letronne's conclusion that he published the work before B. C. 401. Xenophon may have been at Athens in B. C. 402, and Thucydides may have been dead then ; but these two facts prove nothi
type between bourgeois and minion. Bourgeois, 102 ems to the foot. Brevier, 112 ems to the foot. Minion, 128 ems to the foot. Brew′ing. The art of preparing fermented liquors from grain. Herodotus, who wrote about 450 B. C., says that the Egyptians made their wine from barley, and ascribes the invention to Isis, wife of Osiris. The Greeks used a malt liquor under the name of barley wine, having learned the art of making it from the Egyptians. It is mentioned by Xenophon, 401 B. C., According to Tacitus, beer was a common drink among the Germans, and Pliny says that in his time all the nations of the West of Europe made an intoxicating liquor from grain and water. The description given by Isidorus and Orosius of the manner of its preparation in Britain and other ancient Celtic countries, applies precisely at the present day, so far as the infusion of malt is concerned, but no mention is made of the use of hops. These do not appear to have been used by the Greeks, R
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