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Cleome'des (*Kleomh/dhs), an Athenian, son of Lycomedes, was one of the commanders of the expedition against Melos in B. C. 416. He is mentioned also by Xenophon as one of the 30 tyrants appointed in B. C. 404. (Thuc. 5.84, &c.; Xen. Hell. 2.3.2.) Schneider's conjecture with respect to him (ad Xen. l.c.) is inadmissible. [E.
hich afterwards made him so rancorous in his tyranny. (Xen. Mem. 1.2.24, Hell. 2.3. §§ 15, 36; Schn. ad loc. On his return to Athens he became leader of the oligarchical party, and was chosen to be one of the body called Ephori, probably not a public and legal office, but one instituted among themselves by the oligarchs for the better promotion of their ends. (Lys. c. Erat. p. 124; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. iv. p. 160; Hermann, Polit. Ant. § 168.) He was one of the 30 tyrants established in B. C. 404, was conspicuous above all his colleagues for rapacity and cruelty, sparing not even Socrates himself, and took the lead in the prosecution of Theramenes when he set himself against the continuance of the reign of terror. He was slain at the battle of Munychia in the same year, fighting against Thrasybulus and the exiles. (Xen. Hell. 2.3. §§ 2, 15-56, 4. §§ 1-19, Mem. 1.2. §§ 12-38; Diod. 14.4; Plat. Apol. p. 32c; Cic. Tusc. Quaest. 1.40.) Works Speeches Cicero tells us (De Orat. 2.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Cyrus or Cyrus the Younger or the Younger Cyrus (search)
health, that Dareius summoned Cyrus to his presence. (B. C. 405.) Before leaving Sardis, Cyrus sent for Lysander and assigned to him his revenues for the prosecution of the war. He then went to his father, attended by a body of 500 Greek mercenaries, and taking with him Tissaphernes, nominally as a mark of honour, but really for fear of what he might do in his absence. He arrived in Media just in time to witness his father's death and the accession of his elder brother, Artaxerxes Mnemon (B. C. 404), though his mother, Parysatis, whose favourite son Cyrus was, had endeavored to persuade Dareius to appoint him as his successor, on the ground that he had been born after, but his brother Artaxerxes before, the accession of Dareius. This attempt, of course, excited the jealousy of Artaxerxes, which was further enflamed by information from Tissaphernes, that Cyrus was plotting against his life. Artaxerxes, therefore, arrested his brother and condemned him to death; but, on the intercessio
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Dio'genes Oeno'maus a tragic poet, who is said to have begun to exhibit at Athens in B. C. 404. Of his tragedies only a few titles remain, namely, *Que/sths, *)Axilleu/s, *(Ele/nh, *(Hraklh=s, *Mh/deia, *Oi/di/pous, *Xru/sippos, *Seme/lh; and it is remarkable that all of these, except the last, are ascribed by Diogenes Laertius to Diogenes the Cynic. (6.80, or 73.) Others ascribe them to Philiscus of Aegina, a friend of Diogenes the Cynic (Menagius, ad Diog. Laert. l.c.), and others to Pasiphaon. Melanthius in Plutarch (de Aud. Poet. 4, p. 41d.) complains of the obscurity of a certain Diogenes. Aelian (Ael. VH 3.30, N. A. 6.1) mentions a tragic poet Diogenes, who seems, however, to be a different person from either Diogenes the Cynic or Diogenes Oenomaüs. (Suid. s.v. Ath. xiv. p. 636a.; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. ii. p. 295.) [P.S
Draco'ntides (*Drakonti/dhs), one of the thirty tyrants established at Athens in B. C. 404. (Xen. Hell. 2.3.2.) He is in all probability the same whom Lysias mentions (c. Erat. p. 126), as having framed at that time the constitution, according to which the Athenians were to be governed under their new rulers; and he is perhaps also the disreputable person alluded to by Aristophanes as having been frequently condemned in the Athenian courts of justice. (Vesp. 157; Schol. ad loc., comp. 438.) [E.
Fide'nas 2. M'. Sergius Fidenas, L. F. L. N., consular tribune in B. C. 404 (Liv. 4.61; Diod. 14.19), and again in B. C. 402 (Liv. 5.8, &c.; Diod. 14.38). His bad conduct in the latter year, in which he allowed himself to be defeated by the enemy, and his punishment, in consequence, by the people, are related under ESQUILINUS, No. 4.
Glaucon (*Glau/kwn), an Athenian mentioned by Teles (ap. Stob. Floril. vol. ii. p. 82. ed Gaisf.), who appears to have borne a distinguished part in the last struggle of the Athenians against Antigonus Gonatas, known by the name of the Chremonidean war, B. C. 263. After its termination he fled, together with Chremonides, to the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus, where he was received with great honour, and rose to a high place in the king's confidence. Droysen (Hellenism. vol. ii. p. 206) supposes him to be the same Glaucon that is mentioned by Pythermus (apud Athen. ii. p. 44) as a waterdrinker, and who is there called one of the tyrants of the Peiraeeus (e)n toi=s *Peiraiw=s turanneu/ousi) ; but this expression is understood by Thirlwall, with more probability, to refer to the thirty tyrants of B. C. 404. (Thirlwall's Greece, vol. viii. p. 92 not.) [E.H.
out sixty-five years old, so that he would have been born about B. C. 496, and died in B. C. 411. This account, which in itself is very probable, seems to be contradicted by a statement of a scholiast (ad Aristoph. Ran. 706), from which it would appear that after the battle of Arginusae, in B. C. 406, Hellanicus was still engaged in writing; but the vague and indefinite expression of that scholiast does not warrant such an inference, and it is moreover clear from Thucydides (1.97), that in B. C. 404 or 403 Hellanicus was no longer alive. Another authority, an anonymous biographer of Euripides (p. 134 in Westermann's Vitarum Scriptores Graeci minores, Brunswick, 1845), states that Hellanicus was born on the day of the battle of Salamis, that is, on the 20th of Boedromion B. C. 481, and that he received his name from the victory of *(Ella/s over the barbarians; but this account is too much like an invention of some grammarian to account for the name Hellanicus, and deserves no credit; a
Hieron 3. One of the thirty tyrants established at Athens, B. C. 404. (Xen. Hell. 2.3.2.)
Ly'cophron 4. A citizen of Pherae, where he put down the government of the nobles and established a tyranny. Aiming further at making himself master of the whole of Thessaly, he overthrew in a battle, with great slaughter (B. C. 404), the Larissaeans and others of the Thessalians, who opposed him, adherents, no doubt, of the Aleuadae. (Xen. Hell. 2.3.4.) Schneider (ad Xen. l.c.) conjectures that the troops and money obtained in the preceding year by Aristippus of Larissa from Cyrus the Younger were intended to resist the attempts of Lycophron (Xen. Anab. 1.1.10). In B. C. 395, Medius of Larissa, probably the head of the Aleuadae, was engaged in war with Lycophron, who was assisted by Sparta, while Medius received succours from the opposite confederacy of Greek states, which enabled him to take Pharsalus. (Diod. 14.82.) Of the manner and period of Lycophron's death we know nothing. He was probably the father of JASON of Pherae.
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