1. An Athenian, who, together with Adeimantus, was joined with Conon in the command of the fleet on the deposition of the generals who had conquered at Arginusae (B. C. 406). Philocles was the author of the proposal for the mutilation of all the prisoners who should be taken in the sea-fight which the Athenians contemplated; but it seems doubtful whether the decree in question was passed in an assembly at Athens, or in one held at Aegospotami before the battle; also whether it determined on the amputation of the right thumb, according to Plutarch, or the right hand, as Xenophon tells us.
The same spirit of cruelty was exhibited by Philocales on the capture of a Corinthian and Andrian trireme, the crews of which he ordered to be thrown down a precipice.
In retribution for these deeds he was slain at Lampsacus by Lysander, into whose hands he had fallen at the battle of Aegospotami in B. C. 405 (Xen. Hell. 1.7.1, 2.1. §§ 30-32; Diod. 13.104-106; Pl
1. A Syracusan of noble birth, whose sister was married to the illustrious HERMOCRATES. When Dionysius, after his elevation to the despotism of his native country B. C. 406, became desirous to strengthen himself by connection with noble families, he gave his sister in marriage to Polyxenus at the same time that he himself married the daughter of Hermocrates (Diod. 13.96). From this time we find Polyxenus closely attached to the fortunes of the tyrant. During the rebellion of the Syracusans in B. C. 404, which threatened to overthrow the power of Dionysius, his brother-in-law was one of those who assisted him with their counsels; and again, in B. C. 395, when the Carthaginians were preparing to form the siege of Syracuse, Polyxenus was despatched to implore assistance from the Italian Greeks, as well as from the Corinthians and Lacedaemonians.
This object he fully accomplished, and returned to Sicily with a fleet of thirty ships furnished by the allies, and