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eath in B. C. 356. (Plut. Nic. 19, Dion, 35.) It seems also probable that he was considerably older than Dionysius. The first occasion on which we hear of his appearance in public life was after the capture of Agrigentum by the Carthaginians in B. C. 406, when Dionysius, then a young man, came forward in the assembly of the people to inflame the popular indignation against their unsuccessful generals, and the magistrates having imposed on him a fine for turbulent and seditious language, Philist discrepancies in the statements of the number of books of which it was composed. The first seven books comprised the general history of Sicily, commencing from the earliest times, and ending with the capture of Agrigentum by the Carthaginians, B. C. 406. Diodorus tolls us that this portion included a period of more than 800 years : he began with the mythical times, and the alleged colonies in Sicily, founded by Daedalus and others before the Trojan war; besides which he appears to have entered
Phi'locles (*Filoklh=s) historical. 1. An Athenian, who, together with Adeimantus, was joined with Conon in the command of the fleet on the deposition of the generals who had conquered at Arginusae (B. C. 406). Philocles was the author of the proposal for the mutilation of all the prisoners who should be taken in the sea-fight which the Athenians contemplated; but it seems doubtful whether the decree in question was passed in an assembly at Athens, or in one held at Aegospotami before the battle; also whether it determined on the amputation of the right thumb, according to Plutarch, or the right hand, as Xenophon tells us. The same spirit of cruelty was exhibited by Philocales on the capture of a Corinthian and Andrian trireme, the crews of which he ordered to be thrown down a precipice. In retribution for these deeds he was slain at Lampsacus by Lysander, into whose hands he had fallen at the battle of Aegospotami in B. C. 405 (Xen. Hell. 1.7.1, 2.1. §§ 30-32; Diod. 13.104-106; Pl
Poly'xenus (*Polu/cenos). 1. A Syracusan of noble birth, whose sister was married to the illustrious HERMOCRATES. When Dionysius, after his elevation to the despotism of his native country B. C. 406, became desirous to strengthen himself by connection with noble families, he gave his sister in marriage to Polyxenus at the same time that he himself married the daughter of Hermocrates (Diod. 13.96). From this time we find Polyxenus closely attached to the fortunes of the tyrant. During the rebellion of the Syracusans in B. C. 404, which threatened to overthrow the power of Dionysius, his brother-in-law was one of those who assisted him with their counsels; and again, in B. C. 395, when the Carthaginians were preparing to form the siege of Syracuse, Polyxenus was despatched to implore assistance from the Italian Greeks, as well as from the Corinthians and Lacedaemonians. This object he fully accomplished, and returned to Sicily with a fleet of thirty ships furnished by the allies, and
e Silli of Timon (in Sext. Emp. ad v. Math. 9.57), and a passage of Plato (Theaet. p. 171d.), as the placing together of Protagoras and Socrates in them does not presuppose that their deaths were contemporaneous. Nor are we justified in concluding from the boastful expression of the sophist (Plat. Prot. p. 317c.), that he was twenty years older than Socrates. On the other hand, if Euripides alluded to his death in the Ixion (according to Philochorus in D. L. 9.55), he must have died before B. C. 406 or 407, i. e. before the death of Euripides. With preponderating probability, therefore, Frei places the death of Protagoras in B. C. 411, assuming that Pythodorus accused him during the government of the Four Hundred (Quaest. Protey. p. 64), and accordingly assigns about B. C. 480 as the date of his birth. That Protagoras had already acquired fame during his residence in Abdera cannot be inferred from the doubtful statement, that he was termed by the Abderites lo/gos, and Democritus fil
enaea, in February, B. C. 405, and hence several writers, ancient as well as modern, have placed his death in the beginning of that year. (Diod. 13.103 ; Marm. Par. No. 65; Arg. III. ad Oed. Col. ; Clinton, F. H., s. a.) But, if we make allowance for the time required for the composition and preparation of those dramas, of which the Frogs, at least, not only refers to his death, but presupposes that event in the very conception of the comedy, we can hardly place it later than the spring of B. C. 406, and this date is confirmed by the statement of the anonymous biographer, that his death happened at the feast of the Choes, which must have been in 406, and not in 405, for the Choes took place a month later than the Lenaea. Lucian (Macrob. 24) certainly exaggerates, when he says that Sophocles lived to the age of 95. All the various accounts of his death and funeral are of a fictitious and poetical complexion; as are so many of the stories which have come down to us respecting the deat
e (Poet. 22) with Cleophon, as example of those poets whose words are well chosen, but whose diction is not at all elevated. The insipidity of his style is happily ridiculed by Aristophanes in the question, " How shall I eat the words of Sthenelus, dipping them in vinegar or in dry salt ? " (Geryt. ap. Schol. ad Vesp. l.c. ; Ath. ix. p. 367.) The comic poet Plato also, in his Lacones, attacked him for plagiarism. (Harpocr. and Phot. s. v.) There are no fragments of Sthenelus, except a single verse quoted by Athenaeus (x. p. 428a.), which, being an hexameter, call hardly belong to a tragedy. Perhaps Sthenelus composed elegies. How long he lived is not known : from his not being mentioned in the Frogs, Kayser supposes that he had died before the exhibition of that play in B. C. 406. Further Information Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. p. 323; Welcker, die Griech. Tragöd. p. 1033; Kayser, Hist. Crit. Trag. Graec. pp. 323-325; Wagner, Frag. Trag. Graec. in Didot's Bibliotheca, p. 91.[P.S
The great battle of Cyzicus followed, in which Theramenes commanded one of the three divisions of the Athenian force, the other two being under Alcibiades and Thrasybulus respectively (Xen. Hell. 1.1. §§ 12, &c.; Diod. 13.49-51). Theramenes also shared in the further successes of Alcibiades, and early in B. C. 408, in particular, he took a main part in the siege of Chalcedon, and the reduction of Byzantium. (Xen. Hell. 1.3. §§ 2, &c.; Diod. 13.64, 66, 67.) At the battle of Arginusae, in B. C. 406, Theramenes held a subordinate command in the right wing of the Athenian fleet, and he was one of those who, after the victory, were commissioned by the generals to repair to the scene of action and save as many as possible of the disabled galleys and their crews. A storm, it is said, rendered the execution of the order impracticable; yet, instead of trusting to this as his ground of defence, Theramenes thought it safer to divert the popular anger from himself to others, and accordingly ca
B. C. 408 Thrasyllus was engaged with Alcibiades in the successful operations at Chalcedon, which induced Pharnabazus to accept terms of accommodation from the Athenians He probably shared also in the siege and reduction of Byzantium in the same year. and in B. C. 407 he led home to Athens a portion of the triumphant armament. Not long after, he was.; one of the generals who were appointed to supersede Alcibiades after the battle of Notium, and was present in that capacity at Arginusae in B. C. 406. After the battle it was he who proposed to leave 47 galleys behind to save the mien from the wrecks, while the main body of the fleet should sail against the ships of the enemy, which were blockading Mytileine. He was also among the six generals who returned to Athens and were shamfully put to death by the people through the intrigues of Theramenes. It should be observed that Diodorus, in his account of several of the above events, substitutes by an error, the name of Thrasybulus for that
Timo'crates 3. (Unless he is to be identified with No. 2.) An Athenian, who, in B. C. 406, was a member of the Council of Five Hundred, before which the generals who had conquered at Arginusae gave in their account. Having heard it, Timocrates made and carried a proposal that they should all be kept in custody and handed over to the judgment of the people (Xen. Hell. 1.7.3.)
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller), Arginusae (search)
Arginusae a group of islands off the coast of Asia Minor, near Lesbos, scene of the victory of the Athenian fleet (406), 1.84.
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