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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 34 34 Browse Search
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson) 5 5 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 3 3 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 2 2 Browse Search
Aristotle, Politics 1 1 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 408 BC or search for 408 BC in all documents.

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Aha'la 4. C. Servilius Structus Ahala, P. F. Q. N., consular tribune B. C. 408, and magister equitum in the same year; which latter dignity he obtained in consequence of supporting the senate against his colleagues, who did not wish a dictator to be appointed. For the same reason he was elected consular tribune a second time in the following year, 407. He was consular tribune a third time in 402, when he assisted the senate in compelling his colleagues to resign who had been defeated by the enemy. (Liv. 4.56, 57, 5.8, 9.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Anaxila'us of BYZANTIUM (search)
Anaxila'us of BYZANTIUM (*)Anaci/laos), of BYZANTIUM, one of the parties who surrendered Byzantium to the Athenians in B. C. 408. He was afterwards brought to trial at Sparta for this surrender, but was acquitted, inasmuch as the inhabitants were almost starving at the time. (Xen. Hell. 1.3.19; Plut. Alc. pp. 208, d., 209, a.; comp. Diod. 13.67, and Wesseling's note; Polyaen. 1.47.2
the *Ghra=s, translated by Mr. Hamilton.) Clouds (second edition), failed in obtaining a prize. But Ranke places this B. C. 411, and the whole subject is very uncertain. 419. † Peace (e)n a)/stei). Second prize; Eupolis first. 414. Amphiaraus. (Lenaea.) Second prize. † Birds (e)n a)/stei), second prize; Ameipsias first; Phrynichus third. Second campaign in Sicily. *Gewrgoi/ (?). Exhibited in the time of Nicias. (Plut. Nic. 100.8.) 411. † Lysistrata. † Thesmophoriazusae. During the Oligarchy. 408. † First Plutus. 405. † Frogs. (Lenaea.) First prize; Phrynicus second; Plato third. Death of Sophocles. 392. † Ecclesiazusae. Corinthian war. 388. Second edition of the Plutus. The last two comedies of Aristophanes were the Aeolosicon and Cocalus, produced about B. C. 387 (date of the peace of Antalcidas) by Araros, one of his sons. The first was a parody on the Aeolus of Euripides, the name being compounded of Aeolus and Sicon, a famous cook. (Rheinisches Museum, 1828, p. 50.) The
s under Mindarus, who appointed him to lead that part of the force which was specially opposed to Thrasybulus. (Diod. 13.51; Xen. Hell. 1.1.16, &c.; Plut. Alc. 28.) In the same year, on the proposal of Agis, he was sent to Chalcedon and Byzantium, with the latter of which states he had a connexion of hospitality, to endeavour to cut off the Athenian supplies of corn in that quarter, and he accordingly fixed his residence at Byzantium as harmost. When the town was besieged by the Athenians, B. C. 408, Clearchus reserved all the provisions, when they became scarce, for the Lacedaemonian soldiers; and the consequent sufferings of the inhabitants, as well as the general tyranny of his rule, led some parties within the place to surrender it to the enemy, and served afterwards to justify them even in the eyes of Spartan judges when they were brought to trial for the alleged treachery. At the time of the surrender, Clearchus had crossed over to Asia to obtain money from Pharnabazus and to co
contest with Critias, as referred to by Aristotle (Aristot. Rh. 1.15.13), is an instance; and we find him on three several occasions exercising his influence successfully for the prevention of peace with Sparta. The first of these was in B. C. 410, after the battle of Cyzicus, when very favourable terms were offered to the Athenians (Diod. 13.52, 53; Wess. ad loc.; Clinton, F. H. sub anno 410); and it has been thought that a passage in the " Orestes" of Euripides, which was represented in B. C. 408, was pointed against Cleophon and his evil counsel. (See 1. 892, --ka)pi\ tw=|d) a)ni/statai a)nh/r tis a)quro/glwssos, k. t. l.) The second occasion was after the battle of Arginusae, B. C. 406, and the third after that of Aegospotami in the following year, when, resisting the demand of the enemy for the partial demolition of the Long Walls, he is said to have threatened death to any one who should make mention of peace. (Aristot. apud Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 1528; Aesch. de Fals. Leg. p
Coera'tadas (*Koirata/das), a Theban, commanded some Boeotian forces under Clearchus, the Spartan harmost at Byzantium, when that place was besieged by the Athenians in B. C. 408. When Clearchus crossed over to Asia to obtain money from Pharnabazus, and to collect forces, he left the command of the garrison to Helixus, a Megarian, and Coeratadas, who were soon after compelled to surrender themselves as prisoners when certain parties within the town had opened the gates to Alcibiades. [CLEARCHUS.] They were sent to Athens, but during the disembarkation at the Peiraeeus, Coeratadas contrived to escape in the crowd, and made his way in safety to Deceleia. (Xen. Hell. 1.3. §§ 15-22; Diod. 13.67; Plut. Alc. 31.) In B. C. 400, when the Cyrean Greeks had arrived at Byzantium, Coeratadas, who was going about in search of employment as a general, prevailed on them to choose him as their commander, promising to lead them into Thrace on an expedition of much profit, and to supply them plentiful
Cossus 7. P. Cornelius Rutilus Cossus, M. F. L. N., dictator in B. C. 408, defeated the Volsci near Antium, laid waste their territory, took by storm a fort near lake Fucinus, by which he made 3000 prisoners, and then returned to Rome. He was consular tribune in B. C. 406. (Liv. 4.56, 58.)
Cte'sias (*Kth/sias). 1. Of Cnidus in Caria, and a son of Ctesiochus or Ctesiarchus. (Suid. s. v. *Kth/sias; Eudocia, p. 268; Tzetz. Chil. 1.82.) Cnidus was celebrated from early times as a seat of medical knowledge, and Ctesias, who himself belonged to the family of the Asclepiadae, was a physician by profession. He was a contemporary of Xenophon; and if Herodotus lived till B. C. 425, or, according to some, even till B. C. 408, Ctesias may be called a contemporary of Herodotus. He lived for a number of years in Persia at the court of king Artaxerxes Mnemon, as private physician to the king. (Strab. xiv. p.656.) Diodorus (2.32) states, that Ctesias was made prisoner by the king, and that owing to his great skill in medicine, he was afterwards drawn to the court, and was highly honoured there. This statement, which contains nothing to suggest the time when Ctesias was made prisoner, has been referred by some critics to the war between Artaxerxes and his brother, Cyrus the Younger,
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Dareius Nothus (search)
royal general Artasyras, and they themselves were taken prisoners by treachery, and, at the instigation of Parysatis, they were put to death by fire. The rebellion of Pisuthnes had precisely a similar result. (B. C. 414.) [TISSAPHERNES.] A plot of Artoxares, the chief eunuch, was crushed in the bud; but a more formidable and lasting danger soon shewed itself in the rebellion of Egypt under Amyrtaeus, who in B. C. 414 expelled the Persians front Egypt, and reigned there six years, and at whose death (B. C. 408) Dareius was obliged to recognise his son Pausiris as his successor; for at the same time the Medes revolted: they were, however, soon subdued. Dareius died in the year 405-404 B. C., and was succeeded by his eldest son Artaxerxes 11. The length of his reign is differently stated : it was really 19 years. Respecting his relations to Greece, see CYRUS, LYSANDER, TISSAPHERNES. (Ctes. Pers. 44-56 ; Diod. 12.71, 13.36, 70, 108; Xen. Hell. 1.2.19, 2.1.8, Anab. i. 50.1; Nehem. 12.22.)
ng off as many as possible of the inhabitants, but in such haste that he did not stay to bury those of his troops who had fallen in battle. (Diod. 13.59-61.) This circumstance probably gave rise to discontent at Syracuse, which was increased when Hermocrates, having returned to Sicily and obtained some successes against the Carthaginians, sent back the bones of those who had perished at Himera with the highest honours. The revulsion of feeling thus excited led to the banishment of Diocles, B. C. 408. (Diod. 13.63, 75.) It does not appear whether he was afterwards recalled, and we are at a loss to connect with the subsequent revolutions of Syracuse the strange story told by Diodorus, that he stabbed himself with his own sword, to shew his respect for one of his laws, which he had thoughtlessly infringed by coming armed into the place of assembly. (Diod. 13.33.) A story almost precisely similar is, however, told by the same author (12.19) of Charondas [CHARONDAS], which renders it at le
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