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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 54 54 Browse Search
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Sir Richard C. Jebb, Commentary on Sophocles: Oedipus at Colonus 3 3 Browse Search
Aristotle, Politics 2 2 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 411 BC or search for 411 BC in all documents.

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Agesa'ndridas (*)Aghsandri/das), the son of Agesander (comp. Thuc. 1.139), the commander of the Lacedaemonian fleet sent to protect the revolt of Euboea in B. C. 411, was attacked by the Athenians near Eretria, and obtained a victory over them. (Thuc. 8.91, 94, 95
of Tissaphernes from his Spartan allies ensued. Alcibiades, the enemy of Sparta, wished to return to Athens. He accordingly entered into correspondence with the most influential persons in the Athenian fleet at Samos, offering to bring over Tissaphernes to an alliance with Athens, but making it a condition, that oligarchy should be established there. This coinciding with the wishes of those with whom he was negotiating, those political movements were set on foot by Peisander, which ended (B. C. 411) in the establishmennt of the Four Hundred. The oligarchs, however, finding he could not perform his promises with respect to Tissaphernes, and conscious that he had at heart no real liking for an oligarchy, would not recall him. But the soldiers in the armament at Samos, headed by Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus. declared their resolution to restore democracy, and passed a vote, by which Alcibiades was pardoned and recalled, and appointed one of their generals. He conferred an important benefi
Alexicles (*)Aleciklh=s), an Athenian general, who belonged to the oligarchial or Lacedaemonian party at Athens. After the revolution of B. C. 411, he and several of his friends quitted the city and went to their friends at Deceleia. But he was afterwards made prisoner in Peiraeeus, and sentenced to death for his participation in the guilt of Phrynichus. (Thuc. 8.92; Lycurg. in Leocr. p. 164.) [L.
gain the friendship of powerful men were sometimes of the most disreputable kind ; among which a service he rendered to a prince in Cyprus is particularly mentioned. (Comp. Plut. l.c.; Phot. Bibl. p. 488, ed. Bekker; Tzetz. Chil. 6.373, &c.) In B. C. 411, Andocides returned to Athens on the establishment of the oligarchical government of the Four Hundred, hoping that a certain service he had rendered the Athenian ships at Samos would secure him a welcome reception. (De Red. §§ 11, 12.) But no se sentence of civil disfranchisement, he endeavoured by means of bribes to persuade the prytanes to allow him to attend the assembly of the people. The latter, however, expelled him from the city. (Lys. c. Andoc. § 29.) It was on this occasion, B. C. 411, that Andocides delivered the speech still extant on his Return (peri\ th=s e(autou= kaqo/dou), in which he petitioned for permission to reside at Athens, but in vain. In this his third exile, Andocides went to reside in Elis (Plut. Vit. X. Ora
A'ndrocles (*)Androklh=s), an Athenian demagogue and orator. He was a contemporary and enemy of Alcibiades, against whom he brought forward witnesses, and spoke very vehemently in the affair concerning the mutilation of the Hermae, B. C. 415. (Plut. Alc. 19; Andocid. de Myster. § 27.) It was chiefly owing to his exertions that Alcibiades was banished. After this event, Androcles was for a time at the head of the democratical party; but during the revolution of B. C. 411, in which the democracy was overthrown, and the oligarchical government of the Four Hundred was established, Androcles was put to death. (Thuc. 8.65.) Aristotle (Aristot. Rh. 2.23) has preserved a sentence from one of Androcles' speeches, in which he used an incorrect figure. [L
itical opinions, for he belonged to the oligarchical party. This unpopularity, together with his own reserved character, prevented his ever appearing as a speaker either in the courts or the assembly; and the only time he spoke in public was in B. C. 411, when he defended himself against the charge of treachery. (Thuc. 8.68 ; Lys. c. Eratosth. p. 427; Cic. Brut. 12.) The history of Antiphon's career as a politician is for the most part involved in great obscurity, which is in a great measure c.) and Philostratus (Vit. Soph. 1.15.1) mention some events in which he was engaged, but Thucydides seems to have known nothing about them. The only part of his public life of which the detail is known, is that connected with the revolution of B. C. 411, and the establishment of the oligarchical government of the Four Hundred. The person chiefly instrumental in bringing it about was Peisander; but, according to the express testimony of Thucydides, Antiphon was the man who had done everything t
A'ntiphon 2. A tragic poet, whom Plutarch (Vit. X. Orat. p. 833), Philostratus (Vit. Soph. 1.15.3), and others, confound with the Attic orator Antiphon, who was put to death at Athens in B. C. 411. Now Antiphon the tragic poet lived at Syracuse, at the court of the elder Dionysius, who did not assume the tyranny till the year B. C. 406, that is, five years after the death of the Attic orator. The poet Antiphon is said to have written dramas in conjunction with the tyrant, who is not known to have shewn his passion for writing poetry until the latter period of his life. These circumstances alone, if there were not many others, would shew that the orator and the poet were two different persons, and that the latter must have survived the former many years. The poet was put to death by the tyrant, according to some accounts, for having used a sarcastic expression in regard to tyranny, or, according to others, for having imprudently censured the tyrant's compositions. (Plut., Philostr. ll
Aristarchus (*)Ari/starxos). 1. Is named with Peisander, Phrynichus, and Antiphon, as a principal leader of the "Four Hundred" (B. C. 411) at Athens, and is specified as one of the strongest anti-democratic partisans. (Thuc. 8.90.) On the first breaking out of the counter-revolution we find him leaving the council-room with Theramenes, and acting at Peiraeeus at the head of the young oligarchical cavalry (ib. 92); and on the downfall of his party, he took advantage of his office as strategus, and rode off with a party of the most barbarous of the foreign archers to the border fort of Oenoe, then besieged by the Boeotians and Corinthians. In concert with them, and under cover of his command, he deluded the garrison, by a statement of terms concluded with Sparta, into surrender, and thus gained the place for the enemy. (Ib. 98.) He afterwards, it appears, came into the hands of the Athenians, and was with Alexicles brought to trial and punished with death, not later than 406. (Xen. H
as. 422. † Wasps. (Lenaea.) Second prize. *Ghra=s (?) (e)n a)/stei), according to the probable conjecture of Süvern. (Essay on the *Ghra=s, translated by Mr. Hamilton.) Clouds (second edition), failed in obtaining a prize. But Ranke places this B. C. 411, and the whole subject is very uncertain. 419. † Peace (e)n a)/stei). Second prize; Eupolis first. 414. Amphiaraus. (Lenaea.) Second prize. † Birds (e)n a)/stei), second prize; Ameipsias first; Phrynichus third. Second campaign in Sicily. *Gewrgoi/ (?). Exhibited in the time of Nicias. (Plut. Nic. 100.8.) 411. † Lysistrata. † Thesmophoriazusae. During the Oligarchy. 408. † First Plutus. 405. † Frogs. (Lenaea.) First prize; Phrynicus second; Plato third. Death of Sophocles. 392. † Ecclesiazusae. Corinthian war. 388. Second edition of the Plutus. The last two comedies of Aristophanes were the Aeolosicon and Cocalus, produced about B. C. 387 (date of the peace of Antalcidas) by Araros, one of his sons. The first was a parody
Aristo'teles (*)Aristote/lhs), was one of the thirty tyrants established at Athens in B. C. 404. (Xen. Hell. 2.3.2.) From an allusion in the speech of Theramenes before his condemnation (Xen. Hell. 2.3.46), Aristoteles appears to have been also one of the Four Hundred, and to have taken an active part in the scheme of fortifying Eetionia and admitting the Spartans into the Peiraeeus, B. C. 411. (Thuc. 8.90.) In B. C. 405 he was living in banishment, and is mentioned by Xenophon as being with Lysander during the siege of Athens. (Hell. 2.2.18.) Plato introduces him as one of the persons in the "Parmenides," and as a very young man at the time of the dialogue. [E.
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