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Lichas 2. A Spartan, son of Arcesilaus, was proxenus of Argos and one of the ambassadors who proposed to the Argives, without success, in B. C. 422, a renewal of the truce, then expiring, between Argos and Sparta. (Thuc. 5.14, 22.) In B. C. 420, when the Spartans had been excluded by the Eleians from the Olympic games because of their alleged breach of the sacred truce in the seizure of Lepreum, Lichas sent a chariot into the lists in the name of the Boeotian commonwealth; but, his horses having won the victory, he came forward and crowned the charioteer, by way of showing that he was himself the real conqueror. For this he was publicly beaten by the Eleian r(abdou=xoi, and Sparta did not forget the insult, though no notice was taken of it at the time. (Thuc. 5.49, 50; Xen. Hell. 3.2.21; Paus. 6.2.) In B. C. 418, he succeeded in inducing the Argives to make peace with Lacedaemon after the battle of Mantineia. (Thuc. 5.76.) In B. C. 412, he was one of the eleven commissioners sent out
Naucy'des (*Nauku/dhs), an Argive statuary, the son of Mothon, and the brother and teacher of Polycleitus II. of Argos, made a gold and ivory statue of Hebe, which stood by the celebrated statue of Hera by Polycleitus I. in the Heraeum near Mycenae; a bronze statue of Hecate at Argos; and several statues of athletes. (Paus. 2.17.5, 22.8, 6.6.1, 8.3, 9.1.) Tatian mentions his statue of Erinna the poetess. (Adv. Graec. 51, p. 113, Worth.) Pliny, who places him at Ol. 90, B. C. 420 (H. N. 34.8. s. 19), mentions his Mercury, Discobolus, and a man sacrificing a ram (Ibid. § 19). Besides his brother Polycleitus, Alypus of Sicyon was bis disciple. (Paus. 6.1. 7sec; 2; comp. Thiersch, Epochen, pp. 143, 150, 282, 283, and Sillig, Catal. Artif. s. v. [P
e Boeotians, Corinthians, and others, and the hostile disposition of Argos, this peace was soon followed by a treaty of defensive alliance between Athens and Sparta. According to Theophrastus, Nicias, by bribing the Spartan commissioners, contrived that Sparta should take the oaths first. Grounds for dissatisfaction, however, speedily arose between the two states. The jealousy felt by the Athenians was industriously increased by Alcibiades, at whose suggestion an embassy came from Argos in B. C. 420, to propose an alliance. The Spartan envoys who came to oppose it were entrapped by Alcibiades into exhibiting an appearance of double dealing, and it required all the influence of Nicias to prevent the Athenians from at once concluding an alliance with Argos. He induced them to send him at the head of an embassy to Sparta to demand satisfaction with respect to the points on which the Athenians felt themselves aggrieved. The Spartan government would not comply with their demands, and Nicia
Nicoda'mus (*Niko/damos), a statuary of Maenalus in Arcadia, made statues of the Olympic victors Androsthenes, Antiochus, and Damoxenidas ; one of Athena, dedicated by the Eleians; and one of Hercules, as a youth, killing the Nemean lion with his arrows, dedicated at Olympia by Hippotion of Tarentum. (Paus. 5.6.1, 26.5, 6.6.1, 3. g 4, 10.25.4.) Since Androsthenes conquered in the pancratium in the 90th Olympiad, B. C. 420 (Thuc. 5.49), the date of Nicodamus may be placed about that time. [P.
Nico'machus 2. A comic poet of the time of Pherecrates, B. C. 420. To him are doubtfully assigned (Ath. 8.364, a, where he designates him o( r(uqmiko\s), the comedy of *Xei/rwn, and (Harpoer. s.v. *Metallei=s, p. 242) the comedy of *Metallei=z, usually assigned to Pherecrates.
Nico'stratus 3. A tragic actor, who lived before B. C. 420. He is confounded by Suidas (s. v.) with the son of Aristophanes. (Xen. Syump. 3.11; Plut. Moral. p. 348f., Append. Vatic. 1.65; Meineke, Hist. Crit. Com. Graec. p. 347.)
Paeo'nius (*Paiw/nios). 1. Of Ephesus, an architect, whose time is uncertain; most probably he lived between B. C. 420 and 380. In conjunction with Demetrius, he finally completed the great temple of Artemis, at Ephesus, which Chersiphron had begun [CHERSIPHRON]; and, with Daphnis the Milesian, he began to build at Miletus a temple of Apollo, of the Ionic order. (Vitruv. vii. Praef. § 16.) The latter was the famous Didymaeum, or temple of Apollo Didymus, the ruins of which are still to be seen near Miletus. The former temple, in which the Branchidae had an oracle of Apollo (from which the place itself obtained the name of Branchidae), was burnt at the capture of Miletus by the army of Dareius, B. C. 498. (Hdt. 6.19; see Bähr's Note.) The new temple, which was on a scale only inferior to that of Artemis, was never finished. It was dipteral, decastyle, hypaethral: among its extensive ruins two columns are still standing. (Strab. xiv. p.634; Paus. 7.5.4; Chandler, p. 151; Ionian Antiq
Pa'ntias (*Panti/as), of Chios, a statuary of the school of Sicyon, who is only mentioned as the maker of some statues of athletes. He was instructed in his art by his father, Sostratus, who was the seventh in the succession of disciples from Aristocles of Cydonia: Pantias, therefore, flourished probably about B. C. 420-388. (Paus. 6.3. ' 1, 9. ' 1, 14. ' 3; Thiersch, Epochen, pp. 143, 278, 282; ARISTOCLES.) [P.
other hand, the statement of Pausanias (1.28.2), that he drew the outlines of the chasing on the shield of Pheidias's statue of Athena Promachus, would place him as early as Ol. 84, or B. C. 444, unless we accept the somewhat improbable conjecture of Müller, that the chasing on the shield was executed several years later than the statue. (Comp. MYS, and Sillig, Catal. Artif. s. v. Mys.) Now this date is probably too early, for Pliny places Parrhasius's father, Evenor, at the 90th Olympiad, B. C. 420 (H. N. 35.9. s. 36.1). According to thils date Parrhasius himself must have flourished about the 95th Olympiad, B. C. 400, which agrees with all the certain, indications which we have of his time, such as his conversation with Socrates (Xen. Mem. 3.10), and his being a younger contemporary of Zeuxis: the date just given must, however, be taken as referring rather to a late than to an early period of his artistic career; for he had evidently obtained a high reputation before the death of So
he was little disposed to enter heartily into the cause of his new allies, whom he supported so feebly as to lead to the failure of their arms in Chalcidice, and in B. C. 418 he secretly joined the new league concluded between Sparta and Argos. This led to a renewal of hostilities between him and the Athenians, but apparently without any important result. At a subsequent period we find him again in alliance with Athens, without any account of the circumstances that led to this change; but it is evident that he joined one or other of the belligerent parties according to the dictates of his own interest at the moment. (Thuc. 5.80, 83. 6.7, 7.9.) The exact date of the death of Perdiccas cannot be determined, but it is clear from Thucydides that it could not have occurred before the end of B. C. 414, or the beginning of 413. The Parian Chronicle, by a strange error, assigns it to the archonship of Astyphilus, B. C. 420. (Thuc. 7.9; Marm. Par.; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. pp. 74, 223.) [E.H.B]
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