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Peri'clytus (*Peri/klutos), a sculptor, who belonged to the best period and to one of the best schools of Grecian art, but of whom scarcely anything is known. He is only mentioned in a single passage of Pausanias (5.17.4), from which we learn that he was the disciple of Polycleitus of Argos, and the teacher of Antiphanes, who was the teacher of Cleon of Sicyon. Since Polycleitus flourished about B. C. 440, and Antiphanes about B. C. 400, the date of Periclytus may be fixed at about B. C. 420. In some editions of Pausanias his name occurs in another passage (2.22.8), but the true reading is *Poluklei/tou, not *Periklei/tou or *Periklu/tou. [Comp. NAUCYDES [P.
ed by Meineke, who shows that there is no sufficient reason for supposing that Cheiron appeared in the *)/Agrioi at all, or that the Chorus were not really what the title and the allusion in Plato would naturally lead us to suppose, namely, wild men. The play seems to have been a satire on the social corruptions of Athens, through the medium of the feelings excited at the view of them in men who are uncivilized themselves and enemies to the civilized part of mankind. The play was acted at the Lenaea, in the month of February, B. C. 420 (Plat. l.c. ; Ath. v. p. 218d.). Subjects of the other plays The subjects of the remaining plays are fully discussed by Meineke. Confusion with Crates and with Pherecydes. The name of Pherecrates is sometimes confounded with Crates and with Pherecydes. Editions Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. pp. 66-86, vol. ii. pp. 252-360; Bergk, Reliq. Comoed. Att. Antiq. pp. 284-306. Further Information Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 473-476. [P.S]
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Philocha'ridas (search)
Philocha'ridas (*Filoxari/das), a Lacedaemonian of distinction, the son of Eryxidaidas. He was one of the delegates who ratified the year's truce between the hostile confederacies of the Athenians and Peloponnesians in . 100.423. In B. C. 421 he was again one of the Peloponnesians who took the oaths to the general peace, and was one of the ambassadors sent to the countries on the borders of Thrace, to see after the fulfilment of the terms of the treaty. A little later he was one of those who took the oaths to the separate treaty between the Lacedaemonians and Athenians, and in B. C. 420 was one of the ambassadors who were sent to Athens to counteract the negotiations of the Argives, and were tricked by Alcibiades. (Thuc. 4.119, 5.19, 21, 24, 44.) [C.P.
Phradmon (*Fra/dmwn), of Argos, a statuary, whom Pliny places, as the contemporary of Polycleitus, Myron, Pythagoras, Scopas, and Perelius, at Ol. 90, B. C. 420 (H. N. 34.8. s. 19, according to the reading of the Bamberg MS.; the common text places all these artists at Ol. 87). He was one of those distinguished artists who entered into the celebrated competition mentioned by Pliny (l.c.), each making an Amazon for the temple of Artemis at Ephesus : the fifth place was assigned to the work of Phradmon, who seems to have been younger than either of the four who were preferred to him. Pausanias mentions his statue of the Olympic victor Amertas (6.8.1) ; and there is an epigram by Theodoridas, in the Greek Anthology, on a group of twelve bronze cows, made by Phradmon, and dedicated to Athena Itonia, that is, Athena, as worshipped at Iton in Thessaly (Anth. Pal. 9.743; comp. Steph. Byz. s. v. *)/Itwn). Phradmon is also mentioned by Columella (R. R. x. 30). Respecting the true form of the
Phrylus a painter, whom Pliny places at Ol. 90, B. C. 420, with Aglaophon, Cephissodorus, and Evenor, the father of Parrhasius; of all of whom he says, that they were distinguished, but not deserving of any lengthened discussion (omnies jam illustres, non tatmen in quibus hacrere expositio debeat, H. N. 35.9. s. 36). [P.S]
Polycleitus 2. Of the younger Polycleitus of Argos very little is known, doubtless because his fame was eclipsed by that of his more celebrated namesake, and, in part, contemporary. The chief testimony respecting him is a passage of Pausanias, who says that the statue of Agenor of Thebes, an Olympic victor in the boys' wrestling, was made by "Polycleitus of Argos, not the one who made the statue of Hera, but the pupil of Naucydes" (Paus. 6.6.1. s. 2). Now Naucydes flourished between B. C. 420 and 400; so that Polycleitus must be placed about B. C. 400. With this agrees the statement of Pausanias, that Polycleitus made the bronze tripod and statue of Aphrodite, at Amyclae, which the Lacedaemonians dedicated out of the spoils of the victory of Aegospotami (Paus. 3.18.5. s. 8); for the age of the elder Polycleitus cannot be brought down so low as this. Mention has been made above of the statue of Zeus Philis, at Megalopolis, among the works of the elder Polycleitus. Some, however, refer
rpocr., Suid., Phot. s. v. *Polu/gnwtos; Plat. Gorg. p. 448b., and Schol.; Theophrast. ap. Plin. H. N. 7.56. s. 57; Plin. Nat. 35.9. s. 35, 36.1; Quint. Inst. 12.10.3; Dio Chrvsost. Orat. lv. p. 558b.; Simon. Ep. 76. s. 82, apud Brunck. Anal. vol. i. p. 142, Anth. Pal. 9.700 ; AGLAOPHON ; ARISTOPHON ; Sillig, Cat. Art. s. vv. Aylaophon, Aristophon, Polygnotus.) With respect to the time at which Polygnotus lived, Pliny only states indefinitely, that he flourished before the 90th Olympiad, B. C. 420, which is with Pliny an era in the history of the art (Plin. Nat. 35.9. s. 35 : from the context of this passage it would follow that Polygnotus lived after Panaenus, which is certainly incorrect). A much more definite indication of his time is obtained from the statements of Plutarch (Plut. Cim. 4) respecting the intimacy of Polygnotus with Cimon and his sister Elpinice, which, taken in connection with the fact of Cimon's subjugation of Thasos, renders almost certain the opinion of Müller
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Pompi'lia Gens is early mentioned. There was a tribune of the plebs of the name of Sex. Pompilius in B. C. 420 (Liv. 4.44); and Q. Cicero speaks (de Pet. Cons. 3) of a Roman eques of the name, who was a friend of Catiline ; but these are almost the only Pompilii of whom we have any account, with the exception of the grammarian mentioned below. The gentes, which traced their descent from Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, bore other names. [CALPURNIA GENS ; POMPONIA GENS.]
cession of names in a Greek family, make the inference extremely probable that the father of Scopas was that very Aristander who flourished about B. C. 405, and that his family continued to flourish as artists in their native island, almost or quite down to the Christian era (Böckh, C. I. No. 2285, b., vol. ii. pp. 236, 237). Scopas flourished during the first half of the fourth century B. C. Pliny, indeed, places him, with Polycleitus, Phradmon, Myron, Pythagoras, and Perelius, at Ol. 90, B. C. 420 (H. N. 34.8. s. 19, Sillig's edition; the common editions place these artists with those of the preceding period, Ol. 87). It will be seen presently that this cannot possibly be true. The source of Pliny's error here, as in other such cases, is no doubt in the manner in which he constructed his lists of artists, arranging the groups according to some particular epoch, and placing in each group artists who were in part contemporary with each other, although the earliest may have lived quite
other the mimographer. The time at which Sophron flourished is loosely stated by Suidas as "the times of Xerxes and Euripides ;" but we have another evidence for his date in the statement that his son Xenarchus lived at the court of Dionysius I., during the Rhegian War (B. C. 399-387; see Clinton, F. H. s. a. 393). All that can be said, therefore, with any certainty, is that Sophron flourished during the middle, and perhaps the latter part of the fifth century B. C., perhaps about B. C. 460-420. rather more than half a century later than Epicharmus. Works Mimes When Sophron is called the inventor of mimes, the meaning is, as in the case of similar statements respecting the other branches of Dorian Comedy, that he reduced to the form of a literary composition a species of amusement which the Greeks of Sicily, who were pre-eminent for broad humour and merriment, had practised from time immemorial at their public festivals, and the nature of which was very similar to the performan
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