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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 19 19 Browse Search
Andocides, Speeches 1 1 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 1 1 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 421 BC or search for 421 BC in all documents.

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Ambustus the name of a family of the patrician FABIA GENS. The first member of the Fabia gens, who acquired this cognomen, was Q. Fabius Vibulanus, consul in B. C. 412, who appears to have been a son of N. Fabius Vibulanus, consul in B. C. 421. From this time the name Vibulanus was dropt, and that of Ambustus took its place. The latter was in its turn supplanted by that of Maximus, which was first acquired by Q. Fabius, son of No. 7 [see below], and was handed down by him to his descendants.
s are the subject of Xenophon's Occonomicus), and by his description was filled with so ardent a desire to see Socrates, that he went to Athens for the purpose (Plut. de Curios. 2), and remained with him almost up to the time of his execution, B. C. 399. Diodorus (15.76) gives B. C. 366 as the date of Aristippus, which agrees very well with the facts which we know about him, and with the statement (Schol. ad Aristoph. Plut. 179), that Lais, the courtezan with whom he was intimate, was born B. C. 421. Though a disciple of Socrates, he wandered both in principle and practice very far from the teaching and example of his great master. He was luxurious in his mode of living; he indulged in sensual gratifications, and the society of the notorious Lais; he took money for his teaching (being the first of the disciples of Socrates who did so, D. L. 2.65), and avowed to his instructor that he resided in a foreign land in order to escape the trouble of mixing in the politics of his native cit
Ca'llias III. 6. CALLIAS III., son of Hipponicus III. by the lady who married Pericles (Plut. Per. 24), was notorious for his extravagance and profligacy. We have seen, that he must have succeeded to his fortune in B. C. 424, which is not perhaps irreconcileable with the mention of him in the "Flatterers" of Eupolis, the comic poet, B. C. 421, as having recently entered on the inheritance. (Athen. 5.218c.) In B. C. 400, he was engaged in the attempt to crush Andocides by a charge of profanation, in having placed a supplicatory bough on the altar of the temple at Eleusis during the celebration of the mysteries (Andoc. de Myst. § 110, &c.); and, if we may believe the statement of the accused, the bough was placed there by Callias himself, who was provoked at having been thwarted by Andocides in a very disgraceful and profligate attempt. In B. C. 392, we find him in command of the Athenian heavy-armed troops at Corinth on the occasion of the famous defeat of the Spartan Mora by Iphicrat
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Capitoli'nus, Qui'nctius 2. T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus, a son of No. 1, was consul in B. C. 421, together with N. Fabius Vibulanus. (Liv. 4.43.)
a. This play must have been exhibited before B. C. 423, as Aristophanes parodies a passage of it in the Clouds (1148), which he brought out in that year. Müller says that the passage in the Hecuba (645, ed. Pors.), ste/nei de\ kai/ tis k. t. l., " seems to refer to the misfortunes of the Spartans at Pylos in B. C. 425." This is certainly possible ; and, if it is the case, we may fix the refresentation the play in B. C. 424. Heracleidae. Heracleidae. Müller refers it, by conjecture, to, B. C. 421. Supplices. Supplices. This also he refers, by conjecture, to about the same period. Ion, Ion, of uncertain date. Hercules Furens, Hercules Furens, of uncertain date. Andromache, Andromache, referred by Müller, on conjecture, to the 90th Olympiad. (B. C. 420-417.) Troades. Troades. B. C. 415. Electra, Electra, assigned by Müller, on conjecture and from internal evidence, to the period of the Sicilian expedition. (B. C. 415-413.) Helena. Helena. B. C. 412, in the
play he is also said to have held that year the office of Amphictyonic Hieromnemon; but what that year was, the uncertainty of the date of any particular passage in the Clouds makes it hard to say. In some of its latest additions, dating after B. C. 421, the great comedian speaks with compassionate contempt of the way in which his own bold attack on Cleon had been travestied in the case of the pitiful Hyperbolus. He and his mother were the subject of the " Maricas" of Eupolis, and of a play, iearly appearance as a speaker in the assembly; Eupolis in the "Cities," and Plato in the Hyperbolus. Cratinus died B. C. 422, and had also named him in the "Pytine," B. C. 422. (Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac. 691.) The "Maricas " of Eupolis was acted B. C. 421, a few months after the death of Cleon, and just before the peace of Nicias; and to the ensuing period, in which Hyperbolus was struggling for the demagogic throne of Cleon, most of the other plays may be referred. Aristophanes recurs to him in
e related by Plutarch (De Profect. in Virt. 8, p. 79), but he did not come forward as a tragedian till after that poet's death. We also learn from Ion himself (in his e)pidhui/ai, apud Aih. xiii. p. 603e.) that he met Sophocles at Chios, when the latter was commander of the expedition against Samos, B. C. 440. His first tragedy was brought out in the 82d Olympiad (B. C. 452); he is mentioned as third in competition with Euripides and Iophon, in Ol. 87, 4 (B. C. 429-428); and he died before B. C. 421, as appears from the Peace of Aristophanes (830), which was brought out in that year. Only one victory of Ion's is mentioned, on which occasion, it is said, having gained the dithyrambic and tragic prizes at the same time. he presented every Athenian with a pitcher of Chian wine. (Schol. ad Aristoph. l.c. ; Suid. s. v. *)Aqh/naios; Ath. i. p. 3f.; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1454, 24.) Hence it would seem that he was a man of considerable wealth. Works Tragedies The number of his tragedies is
Ischa'goras (*)Isxago/ras), commanded the reinforcements sent by Sparta in the ninth year of the Peloponnesian war, B. C. 423, to join Brasidas in Chalcidice. Perdiccas, as the price of his new treaty with Athens, prevented, by means of his influence in Thessaly, the passage of the troops. Ischagoras himself, with some others, made their way to Brasidas, but how long he staid is doubtful; in B. C. 421 we find him sent again from Sparta to the same district, to urge Clearidas to give up Amphipolis, according to the treaty, into the hands of the Athenians. (Thuc. 4.132, 5.21.) [A.H.
holiast thinks that Aristophanes, in the Wasps, meant no reference to Laches in the arraignment of the dog Labes, for cheese-stealing. But the name of Laches' demus Aexone (comp. Plat. Lach. p. 197), and the special mention of Sicilian cheese, seem to fix the allusion beyond dispute, while by the accusing dog, the ku/wn *Kudaqhnaieu/s, himself as great a filcher, Cleon is as evidently intended. Laches, we find from Plato (Lach. p. 181), was present at the battle of Delium, in B. C. 424. In B. C. 421 he was one of the commissioners for concluding the fifty years' truce between Athens and Sparta, as well as the separate treaty between these states in the same year. He was also one of the commanders of the force sent to Argos, in B. C. 418, when Alcibiades induced the Argives to break the truce made in their name with the Lacedaemonians, by Thrasyllus and Alciphron; and in the same year he fell at the battle of Mantineia, together with his colleague Nicostratus. (Thuc. 5.19, 24, 61, 74.)
La'machus (*La/maxos), son of Xenophanes, in the 8th year of the Peloponnesian war, B. C. 424, with a detachment of 10 ships from the tribute-collecting squadron, sailed into the Euxine; and coming to harbour at the mouth of the Calex, near Heracleia, had his ships destroyed by a sudden flood. He succeeded in making his way by land to Chalcedon. (Thuc. 4.75.) His name recurs in the signatures to the treaties of B. C. 421. And in the 17th year B. C. 415 he appears as colleague of Alcibiades and Nicias, in the great Sicilian expedition. In the consultation held at Egesta on their first arrival, in which Nicias proposed a return to Athens and Alcibiades negotiation, Lamachus, while preferring of these two plans the latter, urged, as his own judgment, an immediate attack on Syracuse, and the occupation of Megara, as the base for future attempts, advice which in him may have been prompted less by counsel than courage, but which undoubtedly was the wisest, and would almost certainly have b
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