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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 21 21 Browse Search
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Agis Ii. the 17th of the Eurypontid line (beginning with Procles), succeeded his father Archidamus, B. C. 427, and reigned a little more than 28 years. In the summer of B. C. 426, he led an army of Peloponnesians and their allies as far as the isthmus, with the intention of invading Attica; but they were deterred from advancing farther by a succession of earthquakes which happened when they had got so far. (Thuc. 3.89.) In the spring of the following year he led an army into Attica, but quitted it fifteen days after he had entered it. (Thuc. 4.2, 6.) In B. C. 419, the Argives, at the instigation of Alciblades, attacked Epidaurus; and Agis with the whole force of Lacedaemon set out at the same time and marched to the frontier city, Leuctra. No one, Thucydides tells us, knew the purpose of this expedition. It was probably to make a diversion in favour of Epidaurus. (Thirlwall, vol. iii. p. 342.) At Leuctra the aspect of the sacrifices deterred him from proceeding. He therefore led his
d on the coast of Asia ; and Alcidas, who, like most of the Spartan commanders, had little enterprise, resolved to return home, although he was recommended either to attempt the recovery of Mytilene or to make a descent upon the Ionian coast. While sailing along the coast, he captured many vessels, and put to deaths all the Athenian allies whom he took. From Ephesus he sailed home with the utmost speed, being chased by the Athenian fleet, under Paches, as far as Patmos. (Thuc. 3.16, 26-33.) After receiving reinforcements, Alcidas sailed to Corcyra, B. C. 427; and when the Athenians and Corcyraeans sailed out to meet him, he defeated them and drove them back to the island. With his habitual caution, however, he would not follow up the advantage he had gained; and being informed that a large Athenian fleet was approaching, he sailed back to Peloponnesus. (3.69-81.) In B. C. 426, he was one of the leaders of the colony founded by the Lacedaemonians at Heracleia, near Thermopylae. (3.92.)
the son of Antisthenes, an Athenian, was the founder of the sect of the Cynics, which of all the Greek schools of philosophy was perhaps the most devoid of any scientific purpose. He flourished B. C. 366 (Diod. 15.76), and his mother was a Thracian (Suidas, s.v. D. L. 6.1), though some say a Phrygian, an opinion probably derived from his replying to a man who reviled him as not being a genuine Athenian citizen, that the mother of the gods was a Phrygian. In his youth he fought at Tanagra (B. C. 426), and was a disciple first of Gorgias, and then of Socrates, whom he never quitted, and at whose death he was present. (Plat. Phaed. § 59.) He never forgave his master's persecutors, and is even said to have been instrumental in procuring their punishment. (D. L. 6.10.) He survived the battle of Leuctra (B. C. 371), as he is reported to have compared the victory of the Thebans to a set of schoolboys beating their master (Plut. Lyc. 30), and died at Athens, at the age of 70. (Eudocia, Viola
e one of a movement backwards ; and therefore, though we allow him to have been honest and bold, we must deny him the epithet of great. Works We subjoin a catalogue of the comedies of Aristophanes on which we possess information, and a short account of the most remarkable. Those marked † are extant. B. C. 427. *Daitalei=s, Banquetters. Second prize. The play was produced under the name of Philonides, as Aristophanes was below the legal age for competing for a prize. Fifth year of the war. 426. Babylonians (e)n a)/stei). 425. † Acharnians. (Lenaea.) Produced in the name of Callistratus. First prize. 424. † *(Ippei=s, Knights or Horsemen. (Lenaea.) The first play produced in the name of Aristophanes himself. First prize; second Cratinus. 423. † Clouds (e)n a)/stei). First prize, Cratinus; second Ameipsias. 422. † Wasps. (Lenaea.) Second prize. *Ghra=s (?) (e)n a)/stei), according to the probable conjecture of Süvern. (Essay on the *Ghra=s, translated by Mr. Hamilton.) Clouds (se
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Hipponicus III. (search)
Hipponicus III. 5. HIPPONICUS III., was the son of Callias II., and with Eurymedon commanded the Athenians in their successful incursion into the territory of Tanagra, B. C. 426. (Thuc. 3.91; Diod. 12.65.) He was killed at the battle of Delium, B. C. 424, where he was one of the generals. (Andoc. c. Alcib. p. 30.) It must therefore have been his divorced wife, and not his widow, whom Pericles married. (Plut. Per. 24; comp. Palm. ad Aristoph. Av. 283; Wesseling, ad Diod. 12.65.) His daughter Hipparete became the wife of Alcibiades, with a dowry of ten talents, the largest, according to Andocides, that had ever before been given. (Andoc. c. Alcib. p. 30; Plut. Alc. 8.) Another daughter of Hipponicus was married to Theodorus, and be came the mother of Isocrates the orator. (Isocr. de Big. p. 353a.) In Plato's "Cratylus," also (pp. 384, 391), Hermogenes is mentioned as a son of Hipponicus and brother of Callias; but, as in p. 391 he is spoken of as not sharing his father's property, and
ounsellor; the attempt by rude bullying to hide from the people his slavery to them; the unscrupulous use of calumny to excite prejudice against all rival advisers. " The people were only showing (what he himself had long seen) their incapacity for governing, by giving way to a sentimental unbusinesslike compassion : as for the orators who excited it, they were, likely enough, paid for their trouble." (Thuc. 3.36-49.) The following winter unmasked his boldest enemy. At the city Dionysia, B. C. 426, in the presence of the numerous visitors from the subject states, Aristophanes represented his " Babylonians." It attacked the plan of election by lot, and contained no doubt the first sketch of his subsequent portrait of the Athenian democracy. Cleon, it would appear, if not actually named, at any rate felt himself reflected upon; and he rejoined by a legal suit against the author or his representative. The Scholiasts speak of it as directed against his title to the franchise (ceni/as gr
Cossus 2. SER. CORNELIUS (M. F. L. N.) COSSUS probably brother of the preceding, was consul in B. C. 428 with T. Quinctius Pennus Cincinnatus II., and two years afterwards, B. C. 426, one of the four consular tribunes, when he was entrusted with the care of the city, while his three colleagues had the conduct of the war against Veii. But the latter having met with a repulse, Cossus nominated Mam. Aemilius Mamercinus dictator, who in his turn appointed Cossus master of the horse. It was this Cossus who killed Lar Tolumnius, the king of the Veii, in single combat, and dedicated his spoils in the temple of Jupiter Feretrius--the second of the three instances in which the spolia opima were won. But the year in which Tolumnius was slain, was a subject of dispute even in antiquity. Livy following, as he says, all his authorities, places it in B. C. 437, nine years before the consulship of Cossus, when he was military tribune in the army of Main. Aemilius Mamercinus, who is said to have b
Demo'sthenes (*Dhmosqe/nhs), son of Alcisthenes, Athenian general, is one of the prominent characters of the Peloponnesian war. He was appointed in the sixth year, B. C. 426, to the command with Procles of a squadron of thirty ships sent on the annual cruise around Peloponnesus. Their first important efforts were directed against Leucas; and with the aid of a large force of Acarnanians, Zacynthians, Cephallenians, and Corcyraeans, it seemed highly probable that this important ally of Sparta might be reduced. And the Acarnanians were urgent for a blockade. Demosthenes, however, had conceived, from the information of the Messenians, hopes of a loftier kind ; and, at the risk of offending the Acarnanians, who presently declined to co-operate, sailed with these views to Naupactus. The Corcyraeans had also left hin, but he still persevered in his project, which was the reduction of the Aetolians,--an operation which, once effected, would open the way to the Phocians, a people ever well di
Eury'lochus (*Eu)ru/loxos), a Spartan commander, in the sixth year of the Peloponnesian war, B. C. 426, was sent with 3000 heavy-armed of the allies, at the request of the Aetolians to act with them against the Messenians of Naupactus, where Demosthenes, whom they had recently defeated, was still remaining, but without any force. Eurylochus assembled his troops at Delphi, received the submission of the Ozolian Locrians, and advanced through their country into the district of Naupactus. The town itself was saved by Acarnanian succours obtained by Demosthenes, on the introduction of which, Eurylochus retired, but took up his quarters among his neighbouring allies with a covert design in concert with the Ambraciots against the Amphilochian Argives, and Acarnanians. After waiting the requisite time he set his army in motion from Proschium, and, by a wellchosen line of march contriving to elude the Amphilochians and their allies, who were stationed to oppose him, effected a junction with
Laches (*La/xhs), an Athenian, son of Melanopus, was joined with Charoeades in the command of the first expedition sent by the Athenians to Sicily, in B. C. 427. His colleague was soon after slain in battle, and Laches, being left sole general, took Messina, and gained some slight advantages over the Epizephyrian Locrians. In B. C. 426 he was superseded by Pythodorus, with whom Sophocles and Eurymedon were shortly joined, and was recalled, apparently to stand his trial on a charge of peculation in his command, brought against him by Cleon. (Thuc. 3.86, 88,90,99,103, 115, 6.1, 6, 75; Just. 4.3; Arist. Vesp. 240, 836, 895, 903, 937; Dem. c. Tim. § 145; Schol. ad Arist. Vesp. 240, 836.) The Scholiast thinks that Aristophanes, in the Wasps, meant no reference to Laches in the arraignment of the dog Labes, for cheese-stealing. But the name of Laches' demus Aexone (comp. Plat. Lach. p. 197), and the special mention of Sicilian cheese, seem to fix the allusion beyond dispute, while by the a
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