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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 38 38 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 3 3 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3 3 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 3 3 Browse Search
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson) 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Sir Richard C. Jebb, Commentary on Sophocles: Antigone 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 431 BC or search for 431 BC in all documents.

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oetry did not die with him; and even after his death, he may be said to have gained many victories over his successors in Attic tragedy. (Hermann, Opusc. ii. p. 158.) The plays thus exhibited for the first time may either have been those which Aeschylus had not produced himself, or such as had been represented in Sicily, and not at Athens, during his lifetime. The individuals who exhibited his dramatic remains on the Attic stage were his sons Euphorion and Bion : the former of whom was, in B. C. 431, victorious with a tetralogy over Sophocles and Euripides (Argum. Eurip. Med.), and in addition to this is said to have gained four victories with dramatic pieces of his father's never before represented. Blomfield, ad Argum. Agam. p. 20.) Philocles also, the son of a sister of Aeschylus, was victorious over the King Oedipus of Sophocles, probably with a tragedy of his uncle's. (Argum. Soph. Oed. Tyr.) From and by means of these persons arose what was called the Tragic School of Aeschylus,
Bra'sidas (*Brasi/das), son of Tellis, the most distinguished Spartan in the first part of the Peloponnesian war, signalized himself in its first year (B. C. 431) by throwing a hundred men into Methone, while besieged by the Athenians in their first ravage of the Peloponnesian coast. For this exploit, which saved the place, he received, the first in the war, public commendation at Sparta; and perhaps in consequence of this it is we find him in September appointed Ephor Eponymus. (Xen. Hell. 2.3.10.) His next employment (B. C. 429) is as one of the three counsellors sent to assist Cnemus, after his first defeat by Phormion ; and his name is also mentioned after the second defeat in the attempt to surprise the Peiraeeus, and we may not improbably ascribe to him the attempt, and its failure to his colleagues. In 427 he was united in the same, but a subordinate, capacity, with Alcidas, the new admiral, on his return from his Ionian voyage; and accompanying him to Corcyra he was reported,
Cincinna'tus 3. T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Pennus, L. F. L. N., son of L. Cincinnatus, and son-in-law of A. Postumius Tubertus, was consul in B. C. 431. In this year the Aequians and Volscians renewed their attacks, and encamped on mount Algidus. The danger was so pressing, that it was resolved to appoint a dictator. The opposition of the consuls was overruled; and Cincinnatus, to whose lot it fell to do so, named as dictator his father-in-law. Cincinnatus and Postumius then led separate armies against the enemy, who sustained a severe defeat. (Liv. 4.26-29.) Cincinnatus was again consul in 428 (Liv. 4.30; Diod. 12.75) and consular tribune in 426. (Liv. 4.31; Diod. 12.80.) With two of his colleagues he commanded against the Veientians, but sustained a defeat, on which Aemilius Mamercus was appointed dictator. In the capacity of legatus he aided the dictator in the victory which he gained over the Veientians and Fidenatians. Having been subsequently brought to trial for his ill-conduct
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Diony'sius or Diony'sius the Elder or the Elder Diony'sius (search)
Diony'sius or Diony'sius the Elder or the Elder Diony'sius (*Dionu/sios) the Elder, tyrant of SYRACUSE, must have been born in B. C. 431 or 430, as we are told that he was twenty-five years old when he first obtained the sovereignty of Syracuse. (Cic. Tusc. 5.20.) We know nothing of his family, but that his father's name was Hermocrates, and that he was born in a private but not low station, so that he received an excellent education, and began life in the capacity of a clerk in a public office. (Cic. Tusc. 5.20, 22; Diod. 13.91, 96, 14.66; Isocr. Philip. § 73; Dem. c. Lept. § 141, p. 506; Polyaen. Strateg. 5.2.2.) He appears to have early taken part in the political dissensions which agitated Syracuse after the destruction of the great Athenian armament, and having joined in the attempt of Hermocrates, the leader of the aristocratical party, to effect by force his restoration from exile, was so severely wounded as to be left for dead upon the spot. (Diod. 13.75.) We next hear of him
Evarchus (*Eu)/arxos), tyrant of the Acarnanian town of Astacus in the first year of the Peloponnesian war, B. C. 431, was ejected by the Athenians in the summer and reinstated in the winter by the Corinthians. (Thuc. 1.30, 33.) Nothing is mentioned further either of him or of Astacus, but it is probable that the Athenian interest was soon restored. (Comp. 1.102.) [A.H.
Eu'machus (*Eu)/maxos). 1. A Corinthian, son of Chrysis, was one of the generals sent by the Corinthians in the winter of B. C. 431 in command of an armament to restore Evarchus, tyrant of Astacus, who had been recently expelled by the Athenians. (Thuc. 2.33
es, of course, the objection against the scene alluded to, as a " lamentable interruption to our feelings of commiseration for the calamities of Admetus,"--an objection which, as it seems to us, would even on other grounds be unenable. (See Herm. Dissert. de Eurip. Alceest., prefixed to Monk's edition of 1837.) While, however, we recognize this satyric character in the Alcestis, we must confess that we cannot, as Müller does, see anything farcical in the concluding scene. Medea. Medea. B. C. 431. The four plays represented in this year by Euripides, who gained the third prize, were Medea, Philoctetis, Dictys, and Messores or *Qeristai/, a satyric drama. (See Hartung, Eur. Rest. pp. 332-374.) Hippolytus Coronifer. Hippolytus Coronifer. B. C. 428. In this year Euripides gained the first prize. For the reason of the title Coronifer (stefanhfo/ros), see vv. 72, &c. There was an older play, called the Veiled Hippolytus, no longer extant, on which the present tragedy was intended as
Eury'machus (*Eu)ru/maxos), grandson of another Eurymachus and son of Leontiades, the Theban commander at Thermopylae, who led his men over to Xerxes. Herodotus in his account of the father's conduct relates, that the son in after time was killed by the Plataeans, when at the head of four hundred men and occupying their city. (Hdt. 7.233.) This is, no doubt, the same event which Thucydides (2.1-7) records as the first overt act of the Peloponnesian war, B. C. 431. The number of men was by his account only a little more than three hundred, nor was Eurymachus the actual commander, but the enterprise had been negotiated by parties in Plataea through him, and the conduct of it would therefore no doubt be entrusted very much to him. The family was clearly one of the great aristocratical houses. Thucydides (2.2) calls Eurymachus "a man of the greatest power in Thebes." [A.H.
. C. 553-504), and Hellanicus was still alive in the reign of Perdiccas, who succeeded to the throne in B. C. 461. This account, however, is irreconcilable with the further statement of Suidas, that Hellanicus was a contemporary of Sophocles and Euripides. Lucian (Macrob. 22) states that Hellanicus died at the age of eighty-five, and the learned authoress Pamphila (apud Gellium, 15.23), who likewise makes him a contemporary of Herodotus, says that at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war (B. C. 431), Hellanicus was about sixty-five years old, so that he would have been born about B. C. 496, and died in B. C. 411. This account, which in itself is very probable, seems to be contradicted by a statement of a scholiast (ad Aristoph. Ran. 706), from which it would appear that after the battle of Arginusae, in B. C. 406, Hellanicus was still engaged in writing; but the vague and indefinite expression of that scholiast does not warrant such an inference, and it is moreover clear from Thucydi
r. The birth year of Herodotus is accurately stated by Pamphila (apud Gell. 15.23), a learned woman of the time of the emperor Nero: Herodotus, she says, was 53 years old at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war; now as this war broke out in B. C. 431, it follows that Herodotus was born in B. C. 484, or six years after the battle of Marathon, and four years before the battles of Thermopylae and Salamis. He could not, therefore, have had a personal knowledge of the great struggles which he aft of the ancients; but whether he went thither with the first colonists in B. C. 445, or whether he followed afterwards, is a disputed point. There is however a passage in his own work (5.77) from which we must in all probability infer, that in B. C. 431, the year of the outbreak of the Peloponnesian war, he was at Athens; for it appears from that passage that he saw the Propylaea, which were not completed till the year in which that war began, It further appears that he was well acquainted wit
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