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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 13 13 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 2 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 1 1 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 1 1 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Massachusetts in the Army and Navy during the war of 1861-1865, vol. 1, Mass. officers and men who died. 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 439 BC or search for 439 BC in all documents.

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Aha'la 2. C. Servilius Structus Ahala, magister equitum B. C. 439, when L. Cincinnatus was appointed dictator on the pretence that Sp. Maelius was plotting against the state. In the night, in which the dictator was appointed, the capitol and all the strong posts were garrisoned by the partizans of the patricians. In the morning, when the people assembled in the forum, and Sp. Maelius among them, Ahala summoned the latter to appear before the dictator; and upon Maelius disobeying and taking refuge in the crowd, Ahala rushed into the throng and killed him. (Liv. 4.13, 14; Zonaras, 7.20; Dionys. Exc. Mai, i. p. 3.) This act is mentioned by later writers as an example of ancient heroism, and is frequently referred to by Cicero in terms of the highest admiration (in Catil. i l, pro Mil. 3, Cato, 16); but it was in reality a case of murder, and was so regarded at the time. Ahala was brought to trial, and only escaped condemnation by a voluntary exile. (V. Max. 5.3.2; Cic. de Rep. 1.3, pro
Auguri'nus 3. Cn. Genucius Augurinus, M. F. M. N., consular tribune B. C. 399, and again in 396, in the latter of which years he was cut off by an ambuscade in the war with the Faliscans and Capenates. (Liv. 5.13, 18; Diod. 14.54, 90.) II. Minucii Augurini. They were originally patricians, but a part of the family at least passed over to the plebeians in B. C. 439. [See below, No. 5.]
Auguri'nus 5. L. Minucius Augurinus, was appointed praefect of the corn-market (praefectus annonae) in B. C. 439, in order to regulate the price of corn and obtain a supply from abroad, as the people were suffering from grievous famine. Sp. Maelius, who distinguished himself by his liberal supplies of corn to the people, was accused by the patricians of aiming at the sovereignty; and Augurinus is said to have disclosed his treasonable designs to the senate. The ferment occasioned by the assassination of Maelius was appeased by Augurinus, who is said to have gone over to the plebs from the patricians, and to have been chosen by the tribunes one of their body. It is stated, indeed, that he was elected an eleventh tribune, as the number of their body was full; but this seems incredible. That he passed over to the plebs, however, is confirmed by the fact, that we find subsequently members of his family tribunes of the plebs. Augurinus also lowered the price of corn in three market days,
Caeci'lius 1. Q. Caecilius, tribune of the plebs, B. C. 439. (Liv. 4.16.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
contest. In B. C. 443 he obtained his fifth consulship. In this year the censorship was instituted at Rome as an office distinct from the consulship. While his colleague M. Geganius Macerinus was engaged in a war against Ardea, Capitolinus gained equal laurels at home by acting as mediator between the patricians and plebeians, with both of whom he had acquired the highest esteem. The extraordinary wisdom and moderation he had shewn on all occasions, obtained for him the sixth consulship in B. C. 439, together with Agrippa Menenius. Rome was at that time visited by a famine, and when he pointed out the necessity of appointing a dictator under the circumstances, the dignity was offered him, but he declined it on account of his advanced age, recommending L. Quinctius Cincinnatus, who was accordingly raised to that dignity. In B. C. 437, he accompanied the dictator Mam. Aemilius Mamercinus as legate in his campaign against Fidenae, and a few years later he came forward as a suppliant for
o however refers the story to his second dictatorship.) The story of the manner in which he effected this is given by Livy (3.26-29). The inconsistencies and impossibilities in the legend have been pointed out by Niebuhr (ii. pp. 266-269), who is inclined to regard it as altogether fabulous. During his dictatorship, in defiance of the tribunes, he held the comitia for the trial of Volscius, through whose evidence his son Caeso had been condemned, and who was charged with false witness. The accused went into voluntary exile. (Dion. Exc. de Sent. 22, p. 151, ed. R.; Zonar. 7.15.) In B. C. 450 Cincinnatus was an unsuccessful candidate for the office of decemvir. (Liv. 3.35.) In the disputes about the law for opening the consulship to the plebeians, we find him the advocate of milder measures. (Liv. 4.6.) In B. C. 439, at the age of eighty, he was a second time appointed dictator to oppose the alleged machinations of Spurius Maelius. (Liv. 4.13-15.) This is the last event recorded of him.
gh not so distinctly,by Themistius. (Orat. viii. p. 110b.) This flourishing period lasted from the establishment of the Athenian power after the Persian war down to the end of the Peloponnesian war, or perhaps a few years later (about B. C. 460-393). The exercise of this license, however, was not altogether unopposed. In addition to what could be done personally by such men as Cleon and Alcibiades, the law itself interfered on more than one occasion. In the archonship of Morychides (B. C. 440-439), a law was made prohibiting the comic poets from holding a living person up to ridicule by bringing him on the stage by name (yh/fisma tou= mh\ kwmfdei=n o)nomasti/, Schol. Arist. Acharn. 67; Meineke, Hist. Crit. p. 40). This law remained in force for the two following years, and was annulled in the archonship of Euthymenes. (B. C. 437-436.) Another restriction, which probably belongs to about the same time, was the law that no Areopagite should write comedies. (Plut. Bell. an Pac. praest.
Lana'tus 5. AGRIPPA MENENIUS AGRIPPAE N. LANATUS, T. F., a brother of No. 4, was consul in B. C. 439, with T. Quintius Capitolinus Barbatus; but they had little to do with the government, as T. Quintius was forced to nominate Cincinnatus as dictator, in order to crush Sp. Maelius. Lanatus was one of the consular tribunes in B. C. 419, and a second time in 417. (Liv. 4.13, 44, 47; Diod. 12.37, 13.7.)
Mae'lius 1. SP. MAELIUS, the richest of the plebeian knights, employed his fortune in buying up corn in Etruria in the great famine at Rome in B. C. 440. This corn he sold to the poor at a small price, or distributed it gratuitously. Such liberality gained him the favour of the plebeians, but at the same time exposed him to the hatred of the ruling class. Accordingly, in the following year, B. C. 439, soon after the consuls had entered upon their office, L. Minucius Augurinus, who had been appointed praefectus annonae [AUGURINUS, No. 5], revealed to the senate a conspiracy which Maelius was said to have formed for the purpose of seizing the kingly power. He declared that the tribunes had been bribed by Maelius, that secret assemblies had been held in his house, and that arms had been collected there. Thereupon the aged Quintius Cincinnatus was immediately appointed dictator, and C. Servilius Ahala, the master of the horse. During the night the capitol and other strong places were gar
ten strategi, of whom Pericles was the chief, in the war against the aristocratical faction of Samos, which lasted from the summer of B. C. 440 to the spring of B. C. 439. The anonymous biographer states that this expedition took place seven years before the Peloponnesian War, and that Sophocles was 55 years old at the time. A fule of Sophocles into two almost equal portions, each extending over the period of about one generation, but the latter rather the longer of the two; namely B. C. 468-439, and B. C. 439-405. The second of these periods, extending from the 56th year of his age to his death, was that of his greatest poetical activity, and to it belong B. C. 439-405. The second of these periods, extending from the 56th year of his age to his death, was that of his greatest poetical activity, and to it belong all his extant dramas. Respecting his personal history, however, during this period of forty-four years, we have scarcely any details. The excitement of the Peloponnesian War seems to have had no other influence upon him than to stimulate his literary efforts by the new impulse which it gave to the intellectual activity of the age;
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