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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 17 17 Browse Search
Sir Richard C. Jebb, Commentary on Sophocles: Antigone 4 4 Browse Search
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Diodorus Siculus, Library 1 1 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
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unhappily; and, having parted from her by mutual consent, he attached himself to Aspasia during the rest of his life as closely as was allowed by the law, which forbade marriage with a foreign woman under severe penalties. (Plut. Per. 24; Demosth. c. Neaer. p. 1350.) Nor can there be any doubt that she acquired over him a great ascendancy; though this perhaps comes before us in an exaggerated shape in the statements which ascribe to her influence the war with Samos on behalf of Miletus in B. C. 440, as well as the Peloponnesian war itself. (Plut. Peric. l.c.; Aristoph. Ach. 497, &c.; Schol. ad loc.; comp. Aristoph. Peace 587, &c.; Thuc. 1.115.) The connexion, indeed, of Pericles with Aspasia appears to have been a favourite subject of attack in Athenian comedy (Aristoph. Acharn. l.c.; Plut. Per. 24; Schol. ad Plat. Menex. p. 235), as also with certain writers of philosophical dialogues, between whom and the comic poets, in respect of their abusive propensities, Athenaeus remarks a st
d, though not so distinctly,by Themistius. (Orat. viii. p. 110b.) This flourishing period lasted from the establishment of the Athenian power after the Persian war down to the end of the Peloponnesian war, or perhaps a few years later (about B. C. 460-393). The exercise of this license, however, was not altogether unopposed. In addition to what could be done personally by such men as Cleon and Alcibiades, the law itself interfered on more than one occasion. In the archonship of Morychides (B. C. 440-439), a law was made prohibiting the comic poets from holding a living person up to ridicule by bringing him on the stage by name (yh/fisma tou= mh\ kwmfdei=n o)nomasti/, Schol. Arist. Acharn. 67; Meineke, Hist. Crit. p. 40). This law remained in force for the two following years, and was annulled in the archonship of Euthymenes. (B. C. 437-436.) Another restriction, which probably belongs to about the same time, was the law that no Areopagite should write comedies. (Plut. Bell. an Pac. p
755, Reiske), and in this the account of Thueydides agrees There were buildings erected in his honour as founder. But when the Athenian part of the colonists had been ejected, and the town had revolted, and by the victory won over Cleon by Brasidas, B. C. 422, had had its independence secured, the Amphipolitans destroyed every memorial of the kind, and gave the name of founder, and paid the founder's honours to Brasidas. (Thuc. 5.11.) It is probably this same Hagnon who in the Samian war, B. C. 440, led, with Thuevdides and Phormion, a reinforcement of forty ships to Pericles; and, without question, it is he who in the second year of the Peloponnesian war, B. C. 430, was on the board of generals, and succeeding, with Cleopompus, to the command of the force which Pericles had used on the coast of Peloponnesus, conveyed it, and with it the infection of the plague to the lines of Potidaea. After losing by its ravages 1500 out of 4000 men, Hagnon returned. (Thuc 2.58.) We hear of him aga
us that Ion severely criticised Pericles (Peric. 5, 28), who is said to have been his rival in love. (Ath. x. p. 436f.) Ion was familiarly acquainted with Aeschylus, if we may believe an anecdote related by Plutarch (De Profect. in Virt. 8, p. 79), but he did not come forward as a tragedian till after that poet's death. We also learn from Ion himself (in his e)pidhui/ai, apud Aih. xiii. p. 603e.) that he met Sophocles at Chios, when the latter was commander of the expedition against Samos, B. C. 440. His first tragedy was brought out in the 82d Olympiad (B. C. 452); he is mentioned as third in competition with Euripides and Iophon, in Ol. 87, 4 (B. C. 429-428); and he died before B. C. 421, as appears from the Peace of Aristophanes (830), which was brought out in that year. Only one victory of Ion's is mentioned, on which occasion, it is said, having gained the dithyrambic and tragic prizes at the same time. he presented every Athenian with a pitcher of Chian wine. (Schol. ad Aristoph
Lana'tus 4. L. Meneniuls Agrippae N. Lanatus, T. F., son of No. 2 and grandson of No. 1, was consul in B. C. 440, with Proculus Geganius Macerinus. During their consulship there was a great famine at Rome; and a praefectus annonae was for the first time appointed, in the person of L. Minucius Augurinus [AUGURINUS, No. 5], though it was not till the following year that the great struggle between the patricians and Sp. Maelius came to a head. (Liv. 4.12; Diod. 12.36.)
Maceri'nus 4. PROCULUS GEGANIUS MACERINUS, probably brother of No. 3, was consul B. C. 440, with L. Menenius Lanatus. (Liv. 4.12; Diod. 12.36.) For the events of the year, see LANATUS, No. 4.
Mae'lius 1. SP. MAELIUS, the richest of the plebeian knights, employed his fortune in buying up corn in Etruria in the great famine at Rome in B. C. 440. This corn he sold to the poor at a small price, or distributed it gratuitously. Such liberality gained him the favour of the plebeians, but at the same time exposed him to the hatred of the ruling class. Accordingly, in the following year, B. C. 439, soon after the consuls had entered upon their office, L. Minucius Augurinus, who had been appointed praefectus annonae [AUGURINUS, No. 5], revealed to the senate a conspiracy which Maelius was said to have formed for the purpose of seizing the kingly power. He declared that the tribunes had been bribed by Maelius, that secret assemblies had been held in his house, and that arms had been collected there. Thereupon the aged Quintius Cincinnatus was immediately appointed dictator, and C. Servilius Ahala, the master of the horse. During the night the capitol and other strong places were gar
have come from some sycophantic partisan, than from Pericles himself. (Plut. l.c.; Thuc. 1.115-117; Diod. 12.27, 28; Suidas, s. v. *Sami/wn o( dh=mos ; Aelian, Ael. VH 2.9; Aristoph. Aclitarn. 850.) Between the Samian war, which terminated in B. C. 440, and the Peloponnesian war, which began in B. C. 431, the Athenians were not engaged in any considerable military operations. On one occasion, though the date is uncertain, Pericles conducted a great armament to the Euxine, apparently with veryion with Aspasia was made the ground of frequent sallies (Schol. ad Plat. p. 391, ed. Bekker; Plut. Per. 24). His high character and strict probity, however, rendered all these attacks harmless. But that Pericles was the author of a law passed B. C. 440, restraining the exhibition of comedy, is not probable. (Thirlwall, vol. iii. p. 83; Cic. de Rep. 4.10, 11.) The enemies of Pericles, unable to ruin his reputation by these means, attacked him through his friends. A charge was brought against P
Peri'clytus (*Peri/klutos), a sculptor, who belonged to the best period and to one of the best schools of Grecian art, but of whom scarcely anything is known. He is only mentioned in a single passage of Pausanias (5.17.4), from which we learn that he was the disciple of Polycleitus of Argos, and the teacher of Antiphanes, who was the teacher of Cleon of Sicyon. Since Polycleitus flourished about B. C. 440, and Antiphanes about B. C. 400, the date of Periclytus may be fixed at about B. C. 420. In some editions of Pausanias his name occurs in another passage (2.22.8), but the true reading is *Poluklei/tou, not *Periklei/tou or *Periklu/tou. [Comp. NAUCYDES [P.
he approximate date of his birth. First of all, the date of Pliny must be disposed of. It is well known how little reliance can be placed on the dates under which Pliny groups the names of several artists. Not only do such lists of names embrace naturally artists whose ages differed by several years, but it is important to observe the principle on which the dates are generally chosen by Pliny, namely, with reference to some important epoch of Greek history. Thus the 84th Olympiad (B. C. 444-440), at which he places Pheidias, is evidently chosen because the first year of that Olympiad was the date at which Pericles began to have the sole administration of Athens * The vagueness of pliny's dates is further shown by his appending the words "rciter CCC. nostrae Urbis anno," which give a date ten years higher, B. C. 454. This, however, cannot be very far from the date at which pheidias began to work. (Clinton, Fast. Hell. s.a. 444). The date of Pliny determines, therefore, nothing as to
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