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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 6 6 Browse Search
Sir Richard C. Jebb, Commentary on Sophocles: Antigone 2 2 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 2 2 Browse Search
Aristotle, Metaphysics 1 1 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 1 1 Browse Search
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Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book 1, section 986b (search)
was "Everything that is is one, if 'what is' has one meaning" (pa/nta (/en, ei) to\ o)\n (\en shmai/nei, Aristot. Phys. 187a 1); but he probably believed, no less than Melissus, in the material unity of reality. Cf. Melissus Fr. 8 (Diels). It has been suggested, however (by the Rev. C. F. Angus), that he was simply trying to convey in figurative language a conception of absolute existence.but MelissusOf Samos; defeated the Athenian fleet in 441 B.C. as materially one. Hence the former says that it is finite,Melissus Fr. 8, ll. 32-3, 42-3. and the latter that it is infinite.Melissus Fr. 3. But Xenophanes,Of Colophon, b. 565 (?) B.C. Criticized and ridiculed most of the views of his day, especially the anthropomorphic conception of the gods. Burnet, E.G.P. 55 ff., esp. 61-62. Cf. Xenophanes Fr. 23 (Diels). the first exponent of the Unity (for Parmenides is said to have been his disciple), g
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XII, Chapter 27 (search)
441 B.C.When Timocles was archon in Athens, the Romans elected as consuls Lar Herminius and Titus Stertinius Structor. In this year the Samians went to war with the Milesians because of a quarrel over Priene, and when they saw that the Athenians were favouring the Milesians, they revolted from the Athenians, who thereupon chose Pericles as general and dispatched him with forty ships against the Samians. And sailing forth against Samos, Pericles got into the city and mastered it, and then established a democracy in it. He exacted of the Samians eighty talents and took an equal numberThuc. 1.115 says fifty. of their young men as hostages, whom he put in the keeping of the Lemnians; then, after having finished everything in a few days, he returned to Athens. But civil discord arose in Samos, one party preferring the democracy and the other wanting an aristocracy, and the city was in utter tumult. The opponents of the democracy
Sir Richard C. Jebb, Commentary on Sophocles: Antigone, Introduction (search)
s —and there were others of a similar kind—were compiled, old and authentic lists of Athenian plays, with their dates, appear to have been extant in such libraries as those of Alexandria and Pergamum. When, therefore, we meet with a tradition,—dating at least from the second century B.C.,—which affirms that the strategia of Sophocles was due to his Antigone, one inference, at least, is fairly secure. We may believe that the Antigone was known to have been produced earlier than the summer of 441 B.C. For, if Sophocles was strategus in the early spring of 440 B.C., he must have been elected in May, 441 B.C. The election of the ten strategi was held annually, at the same time as the other official elections (a)rxairesi/ai), in the month of Thargelion, at the beginning of the ninth prytany of the civic year. Further, we may conclude that the Antigone had not been produced at any long interval before May, 441 B.C. Otherwise the tradition that the play had influenced the election—whether
Sir Richard C. Jebb, Commentary on Sophocles: Antigone, Introduction (search)
ability of Bergk's conjecture, viz., (1) some independent reason for thinking that the Antigone was the 30th, rather than the 32nd, of its author's works; and (2) some better ground for assuming that it gained the second prize..’ This statement was doubtless taken from authentic didaskali/ai—lists of performances, with their dates—which had come down from the 5th century B.C. to the Alexandrian age. The notice has a larger biographical interest than can often be claimed for such details. In 441 B.C. Sophocles was fifty-five: he died in 406/5 B.C., at ninety or ninety-one. More than 100 lost plays of his are known by name: the total number of his works might be roughly estimated at 110. It appears warrantable to assume that Sophocles had produced his works by tetralogies,—i.e., three tragedies and one satyric drama on each occasion. If the number 32 includes the satyric dramas, then the Antigone was the fourth play of the eighth tetralogy, and Sophocles would have competed on seven occ
A'rtemon 4. A LACEDAEMONIAN, who built the military engines for Pericles in his war against Samos in B. C. 441. (Plut. Per. 27; Diod. 12.28; Schol. ad Aristoph. Acharn. 802.) There was a celebrated statue of this Artemon made by Polycletus. (Plin. Nat. 34.19.2.) Servius (Serv. ad Aen. 9.505) confounds him with Artemon of Clazomenae.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Crassus, Papi'rius 1. M'. Papirius Crassus was consul in B. C. 441 with C. Furius Pacilus. (L; r. 4.12; Diod. 12.35.)
o agree with his critics in admitting that the extracts were remnants of the extracts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus from the *(rwmai+kh\ *)Arxaiologi/a. Respecting their value, see Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, ii. p. 419, note 916, iii. p. 524, note 934, Lectures on Rom. Hist. i. p. 47. Dionysius treated the early history of Rome with a minuteness which raises a suspicion as to his judgment on historical and mythical matters, and the eleven books extant do not carry the history beyond the year B. C. 441, so that the eleventh book breaks off very soon after the decemviral legislation. This peculiar minuteness in the early history, however, was in a great measure the consequence of the object he had proposed to himself, and which, as he himself states. was to remove the erroneous notions which the Greeks entertained with regard to Rome's greatness and to shew that Rome had not become great by accident or mere good fortune, but by the virtue and wisdom of the Romans themselves. With this ob
warrantably concluded by Hartung (p. 6, &c.), who ascribes also to the same date the composition of the Veiled Hippolytus. The representation of the Peliades, the first play of Euripides which was acted, at least in his own name, took place in B. C. 455. This statement rests on the authority of his anonymous life, edited by Elmsley from a MS. in the Ambrosian library, and compared with that by Thomas Magister; and it is confirmed by the life in the MSS. of Paris, Vienna, and Copenhagen. In B. C. 441, Euripides gained for the first time the first prize, and he continued to exhibit plays until B. C. 408, the date of the Orestes. (See Clinton, sub annis.) Soon after this he left Athens for the court of ARCHELAUS, king of Macedonia, his reasons for which step can only be matter of conjecture. Traditionary scandal has ascribed it to his disgust at the intrigue of his wife with Cephisophon, and the ridicule which was showered upon him in consequence by the comic poets. But the whole story i
Pa'cilus 1. C. Frius Pacilus Fusus, consul B. C. 441 with M'. Papirius Crassus (Liv. 4.12). He was censor B. C. 435 with M. Geganius Macerinus : the events of his censorship are given under MACERINUS, No. 3. (Liv. 4.22, 24, 9.33, 34.) He was one of the consular tribunes in. B. C. 426, and was unsuccessful in a battle against the Veientines (Liv. 4.31).
ubject of the drama was the institution of the Eleusinian mysteries, and the establishment of the worship of Demeter at Athens by Triptolemus. From this epoch there can be no doubt that Sophocles held the supremacy of the Athenian stage (except in so far as it was shared by Aeschylus during the short period between his return to Athens and his final retirement to Sicily), until a formidable rival arose in the person of Euripides, who gained the first prize for the first time in the year B. C. 441. We possess, however, no particulars of the poet's life during this period of twentyeight years. The year B. C. 440 (Ol. 84, 4) is a most important era in the poet's life. In the spring of that year, most probably, he brought out the earliest and one of the best of his extant dramas, the Antigone, a play which gave the Athenians such satisfaction, especially on account of the political wisdom it displayed, that they appointed him one of the ten strategi, of whom Pericles was the chief, i
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